Baghawad Geeta, Class 140: Chapter 10 Summary

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji summarized the chapter # 10 today. The chapter by its position within the Gita is occupying Madhyama Shatakam. The first six chapters are known as prathama shatakam; the chapters seven through twelve are known as madhyama shatakam and last six chapters are known as charama Shatakam.

In the first shatakam, nature of Jiva is focused upon; in second shatakam nature of Ishwara (God) is the focus and in final shatakam, Jiva Ishwara Swarupa Aikyam is focused upon.

In Madhyama Shatakam focus is on Ishwara sawrupam. Sri Krishna started the topic in chapter # 7 and its culmination occurs in chapter # 12. In all religions they say the God is the creator of the world or the karta. When we learn that God is the maker or creator of this universe, naturally we conceive of the Lord in our own way. So we get the first concept of God based on

this definition; that God is the maker or the creator. When we learn God is creator, we conceive of him in our own way; this is the first concept. Generally when we see a product we don’t see the Creator. When I see a mike, I don’t see its creator. It is same for a desk as well. We usually infer the creator rather than perceive him.

Ishwara is anumita swarupa meaning he is not perceived by me; rather he is inferred by me. So this Ishwara is Paroksha Ishwara and not Pratyaksha Ishwara. This is concept # 2, that God is remote.

So, since I don’t know nature of God I have to imagine him or see him as a Kalpita Rupam. All of you have grandfathers, while some of you have to imagine them, as they are not anymore. So, Ishwara is Anumitha swarupa. If I have to imagine something; I have to imagine him as a human being; remember most animals don’t have sufficient intelligence to conceive a human form. It is an imagined form, as I don’t see God.

Therefore Ishvara has got a nature, which is imagined by me; so Ishvara is anumitha; Ishvara is paroksha; and Ishvara is kalpitha rupa; of an imagined form; if I have to imagine the form of Ishvara.

So, I see God as a very intelligent human being. His intelligence must be higher, since he has created the whole universe. So, I add a few more heads to God’s image to account for the extra intelligence or omniscience. Then you imagine God as all-powerful; how to imagine power; I imagine power with a few more hands. So I imagine a god similar to human being; as male or female; of a particular color, white, dark, etc; to get help I read the scriptures and they confuse me ever further as they describe many forms; Rama form, Shiva form, Vishnu form, Krishna form, etc. They talk of omniscience, omnipotence etc. Scriptures mention many Gods but they also say God is the Creator; now which God is the creator? In some God is white; in some God is black. Reality is that only one form is real while all other forms are Vesham or disguise. Which is real and which is Vesham? Vaishnavas say Vishnu is the original god; Shaiva’s say Shiva is the original god and Devi bhaktas say Devi is the original goddess; all are from my own imagination. Scriptures point out that God darshanam alone gives liberation; if so when will I see Vishnu or Shiva or Devi?

And if you read puranas they declare that some of the devotees had Rama darshanam; Thyagaraja had seen Rama; Meera had seen Krishna. Questions come up in my mind what if I don’t see God, will I get liberation; these types of questions rise in my mind. Sri Krishna wants to transform our very concept of God.

So Krishna wants to transform our concept of God; It is very good to know God as the creator; but if you have to

progress further, in your sadhana; you have to understand further regarding the nature of God. At present; God is inferred for you; God is remote; paroksham for you; and God is kalpitha rupa of an imagined form.

Sri Krishna says, if you see God as only the Creator of the World, your understanding is incomplete, causing confusion about God. Your sadhana’s will also not crystallize. If so, how to enhance my understanding? He says, ask also the question, what is the material used for Creation by God.

Carpenter uses wood for creation. Similarly, if god alone is there in world what is the material he used?

When I say God, who was only one God; without a second thing; this is very important; He was only there; so when God alone is there to create the world; what is the material out of which God created. Unless you ask this question and find out the answer, your concept of God will be immature; and vulnerable to logical attack;  And Sri Krishna says when you ask the question what is the material out of which God made; the answer is that God has to find the material also in himself, because there is no other second material. God is not only the creator, God is also the material part and therefore God has two aspects; one is the chetana aspect and the other is the achetana aspect. The intelligence principle also must be God; the raw material principle also must be God alone; thus God becomes a mixture of chetana achetana tatvam. This we also saw in the seventh chapter as para apara prakrti. He is matter and spirit put together – is God; this is a very important breakthrough in the Vedic teaching.

Once I know God is material as well then we have some important corollaries coming out of it.

  1. The material cause is never away from product; thus gold is not away from an ornament so also Karanam is not away from Karyam.
  2. Material cause is perceived, not inferred in product.

Therefore Ishvara is never an inferred object; a remote object; Ishvara is a perceived object; Ishvara is never remote. My concept drastically changes; Ishvara is pratyaksha siddhaha.

What is form of this Ishwara? What is the form of Gold? All ornamental forms visible to us belong to gold alone. Bangle form of gold is a perceived form not an imagined one. All forms of products are forms of God alone, always available to us. So Ishwara is pratyaksham to all of us at all times.

Sri Krishna says striving for Ishwara darshanam is due to our incomplete understanding of Ishwara. Ishwara is the creator plus the material cause; this is the correct understanding. I am always having Ishwara darshanam. In bangle, chain, and ring, in all of them, I see gold. So God let me not forget that entire creation is your manifestation alone. This darshanam is called Vishwa rupa or Aneka Rupa darshanam. In this darshanam whatever glories I see, they remind me of God alone. So he sees Ishwara, God, in everything. Right now we are looking for a miracle to see God; however Sri Krishna says, every event in creation is god’s miracle or Vibhuti. This transforms my perception of world. I see the apparent beauty of the ornament but I also remember it is all gold. This is the transformation he brings in us.

First eleven shlokas:

God is creator and material cause of creation. It gave example of spider that finds raw material within itself and also creates the web from it. Thus spider is the cause of creation of the web.

Similarly Ishvara is both the para prakrti, the intelligent cause and the apara prakrti, the material cause and in Sanskrit we use the technical word abhinna nimitta upadana karanam; and Sri Krishna said, not only the external world is my manifestation; also the internal world of thoughts are my manifestation only; Just as during the dream my own mind manifests as the chara achara svapna prapancha; what is the mountain; my own mind is the mountain; that means I am the mountain; and if somebody is climbing the mountain, I am the climber also, and while climbing the mountain, I am the drinker also; I am the water also; Just as I myself manifest as everything in the dream world; similarly the Lord himself is both bahya and anthara. Similarly, god alone manifests in everything in universe. Such a devotee who sees this manifestation of God in everything is a Vishwarupa Bhakta.

So when the virat bhaktha looks at any head, he looks at the head of everyone as the head of the Lord only. All heads are Lord’s heads; all hands are Lord’s hands; so

do not imagine that there is a Vishnu standing there with many heads; all the heads that I see belong to the Lord; all the hands belong to the Lord; all the legs belong to the Lord; and therefore anyone I see, my method of greeting is: namaha te; It means your superficial form is different from mine, but behind your form is Ishvara; behind my form is Ishvara; forms are many, Ishvara is one alone. Therefore I say Namaskaram to everyone whatever be the character of the person; knowing that the one behind is Ishvara;

So, whatever experiences come your way, don’t resist, just accept the good and bad.

Then Sri Krishna says those who remain in Vishwarupa bhakti ultimately come to Nirguna rupa Ishwara or Arupa Ishwara. Arupa Ishwara is beyond all forms. Anekarupa is incomplete, as time and space are within it; it is in time space modification.

And why should we come to arupa Isvara; why can’t we stop at aneka rupa Ishvara; aneka rupa Ishvara is incomplete because; wherever forms are there, there, time and space also comes. Therefore vishva rupa Ishvara is also within time, space and modification; and therefore Sri Krishna says: I will take you beyond name and form and I will take you to Arupa Ishvara; which is beyond desa kala; which is called sat chid ananda svarupam.

So between eka rupa Ishvara (means God as a person);  and arupa Ishvara; we all require an intermediary stage; known as aneka rupa Ishvara; we have to learn to appreciate. I have to learn to see the creation as God. And only when I see creation as God; raga and dvesha will become feeble and weak; Otherwise there will be strong raga dvesha; and with strong raga dvesha; one can never come to nirguna Ishvara; And therefore

to neutralise raga dvesha; we have to see everything as the manifestation of the Lord;if so, how can I be attached to something; And how can I be averse to something; how can I reject something; Nothing is rejectible in the creation and there is nothing I hate.

It does not mean that if there is a cobra, you should take the cobra in hand; you can keep a safe distance; but mentally I accept that too is an integral part of the creation; So, mentally I do not reject anything or hate anything.

Shloka’s # 12- 18:

Here we get Arjuna’s request for vishvarupa Ishvara varnanam; and the vishvarupa Ishvara vibhuthi varnanam; vibhuthi means the glory; And why should Arjuna asks for the glories of vishvarupa Ishvara; Arjuna himself gives the logic also; I cannot visualize the vishva rupa with my mind because the vishva rupa Ishvara is too vast for me to conceive of. I have got a limited mind and sense organs; that if I see in this direction, I cannot see what is here.

Citing an example, if I have to worship India as my motherland, one invents a symbol and on that symbol or form, you invoke the entire country and salute it. So, Arjuna wants some symbol like a Shaligramam alambanam to invoke and meditate upon.

Shloka 19- 41:

Sri Krishna accepts and answers Arjuna’s request in shlokas 19 through 41.

Sri Krishna now enumerates his Vibhutis. He says, any glorius thing in creation is my Vibhuti alone. Sun, fire, Bhumi are all examples of this. Even the organs of my body are examples of my vibhuti.

And why, take your own body, any organ is a glory of Lord; we can never create any organ; to maintain them we are struggling with great difficulty; eye is a glory; so meditate upon your eye as Ishvara; in which culture can you see that; meditation upon your very eye as God; because of the glory of the eye; The more you think, the more wonderful it is.

Sri Krishna enumerates Vibhutis from scriptures and some from creation itself.

Two important Vibhutis mentioned by Sri Krishna are:

First: the life principle or Consciousness. The sentiency in body is my vibhuti; that Chaitanyam is my greatest glory, says Sri Krishna.

Second:  And then at the end Krishna says; not only consciousness is my glory; in fact the very existence of the world really does not belong to the world, it is lent by Me. Like the very existence of the ornament does not belong to the ornament; it belongs to gold; how do you prove; remove the gold and try to keep the ornament. So when you say ornament is the very existence it comes from gold; when you say desk is: the existence comes from the wood; when you say world is: the existence come from the basic stuff of the creation called Ishvara. Thus starting with the chit, Sri Krishna concludes with sat; all are my glories; but the problem is Chit and Sat are both nirguna svarupam; Meditating on them is difficult. So take any saguna swarupam and worship

O Arjuna, I am in creation, also the Creation is in Me. All ornaments are Nama and Rupa resting in gold. Creation is just a bunch of namas and rupas or forms resting in the fundamental cause, Me.

If you are not satisfied with my list of glories, you can add your own items. Anything wonderful you see in life is My glory; anything powerful you see is My glory. Furthermore, these glories are inexhaustible.

One Bhakta said, suppose Saraswati Devi decides to write all of God’s glories; she has hundreds of pens from heavenly trees; using surface of earth as a letter pad; using the ocean as ink; and the Himalaya as the weight of ink. She starts writing; even if she keeps writing all the time, still Saraswati Devi cannot exhaust all my glories. So, I have given you some samples of my glories.

And having said that I am in the world in the beginning, Sri Krishna concluded saying I am not in the world, rather the world is in Me; and this last verse becomes the seed for vishva rupa darshana yoga; So when we say God is in the world; it is called Vibhuthi yoga; when you say that world is in God; that is called visvarupa darshana yoga; both we must be able to appreciate. See the water in waves; that is also an appreciation. See all the waves in the water; that is also another form of appreciation. And since the glories of the Lord have been talked about in this chapter, this chapter gets the title Vibhuthi yoga, this chapter deals with Ishvara’s mahima.

Take away:

In the first shatakam, nature of Jiva is focused upon; in second shatakam nature of Ishwara (God) is the focus and in final shatakam, Jiva Ishwara Swarupa Aikyam is focused upon.

He is matter and spirit put together – is God; This is a very important breakthrough in the Vedic teaching.

Greeting Namaste explained: namaha te; I bow to you. It means your superficial form is different from mine, but behind your form is Ishvara; behind my form is Ishvara; forms are many, Ishvara is one alone.

To neutralize raga dvesha; we have to see everything as the manifestation of the Lord; this way we get over likes and dislikes.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Bhagawat Geeta, Class 139: Chapter 10, Verses 35 to 42

Shloka # 35:

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम्
मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः।।10.35।।

I am also the Brhat-sama of the Sama (-mantras); of the metres, Gayatri. Of the months I am Marga-sirsa, and among seasons, spring.

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, Sri Krishna, enumerating the glories of Ishwara in shloka # 35 said, “ I am Sama among Vedas; I am Gayathri among mantras.” Gayathri is a representative of Vedas. Veda is also called Brahman. That is why Gayathri Upadesha is called Brahmupadesha or Veda Upadesha. In Chandogya Upanishad, Gayathri is presented as Brahman for meditation. Brahma sutra also analyzed it, as well. The mantra occurs in Rg, Yajur and Sama Vedas, as well.

Among all months I am the period between Dec 15- Jan 15, known as Margashirsha. This month is considered important because at that time land is full of crops, grains are plentiful, and prosperity on earth is high. Other commentators say that it is the dawn of the Devatas. Devatas one day equates to one year of human beings.  The time before start of such a day is called Brahma Muhurtha. Brahma Muhurtha is a satvic period. Hence that month is important for spiritual practices.

Among six seasons I am Vasantha. The six seasons are: vasantha, varsha, sharat, hemantha, shishira and grishma. Vasantha Ritu is the period when flowers blossom and people are happy; the most pleasant season, when I am Kusumakaraha, meaning I am the abundance of flowers.

Shloka # 36:

द्यूतं छलयतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम्
जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववतामहम्।।10.36।।

Of tricksters I am the game of dice; of the vigorous I am vigor; I am victory, I am resolution; of the virtuous, I am virtue.


Among those activities that rob us of our discriminative powers, I am gambling. Gambling makes one addicted. Kalidevata resides in several places and deludes human minds says, Bhagavan. In entire Mahabharata the message is that if we are not careful, gambling can suck us down. Dharmaputra got hooked on it and lost his sense of propriety and lost his wife and brothers. He knew Dharma and yet lost his balance. In our younger days parents used to tell us not to play cards because of this.


I am internal brilliance amongst all brilliant people. Brilliance is one who resists temptations. It is easier to say no the first time as it becomes more difficult later. Therefore I am that brilliant discrimination that resists temptations.


I am Satva guna among Satvic people.  I am the satva guna, which represents spiritual inclination; rajo guna represents materialistic inclination; Artha-kama inclination is caused by rajo guna; Dharma moksha inclination is caused by satva guna; and tamo guna obstructs our inclination for both of them; tamo guna makes a person lazy with neither materialistic inclination, nor spiritual inclination.

Scriptures say Tamasic person must cultivate material desires and then go to Spiritual desires. That spiritual desire is Satva Guna.

Vyavasayaha: means prayatna or effort. This effort is to fulfill spiritual desires. Thus Pancha Maha Yagna is important for Chitta Shuddhi. It is industry as a character of mind where I will lead one to victory or success.

Thus, Satva Guna triggers Vyavsayaha victory. I am That. If we get spiritual success we should not be arrogant as even that is due to the Lord. Pull of free will should be backed by Ishwara anugraha.

Shloka # 37:

वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनंजयः
मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः कवीनामुशना कविः।।10.37।।

Among members of the Vrsni clan, I am Vasudeva; among pandavas, I am Arjuna. Among the contemplative sages, I am Vyasa; among the seers, I am seer Usnaha.

Among descendants of Vrishni’s (Yadava Vamsha) I am Vasudeva. One of Sri Krishna’s names is Varshneya.

Why does he claim he is greatest here; because Sri Krishna is an avatara of God. Why is Sri Krishna most glorious among avataras? In Sri Krishna avatara alone God performs as a liberating Acharya, as Jagat Guru. Therefore Sri Krishna’s teaching of the Bhagavat Gita is one of the three main textbooks of Vedanta shastra. These three books are known as Prasthana Trayam. First one, the Upanishads, is called the shruti prasthana; the second one is bhagavad Gita called the smrti prasthanam; and the third one is brahma sutras, the nyaya prasthanam.

The Gita, even now is fresh and valid; it is not an obsolete textbook; rather it is a valid teaching; and since Krishna is the Gitacharya, he is the greatest one.

Among Pandavas I am Arjuna himself. Why is Arjuna the greatest and not Dharmaputra? If Gita is the grestest shastra, Arjuna was the first receiver of this greatest teaching. He got teaching from Narayana himself.  Why was Arjuna chosen for giving Gita teaching? Several reasons are given but most obvious one is that Arjuna asked Sri Krishna for the teaching.

Among Muni’s, I am Vyasa Acharya. Why so? Sri Krishna is the greatest Acharya as he is a brahma vidya acharya. Among prastahna Trayam one contribution is by Sri Krishna and other of the Brahma sutra is by Vyasa. Vyasa, within Mahabharata, did even the compilation of Gita. He contributed to both Gita and Brahma sutra. During amaniavattam tarpanam there is a prayer offered to Krishnadvaipayana or Vyasa. Therefore, among Rishis, I am Vyasa. He got name Vyasa as he compiled the Vedas as well. He called four disciples and asked for their assistance. Vyasa’s original name was Krishnadvaipayana; he was also called Vedavyasa and thus became known as Vyasa.

Among great seers, who can see all three kalas, I am Shukracharya; or Usana, the asura guru. Here Kavi does not mean a poet rather he is a Kranta darshi or one with ESP; who sees beyond sense organs.

Shloka # 38:

दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम्
मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवतामहम्।।10.38।।

Of those who chastise, I am the rod; of those who seek victory, I am the tactics. Of secrets, I am the silence, and of the learned, I am knowledge.

Among disciplinarians or orderliness, I am Danda, the rod of punishment. The process of discipline can include: Requesting, education and punishment. Sri Krishna says generally people are immature and gross; and therefore education, good words, etc. do not work; generally, what works is, dandah or punishment.

Here Sama, Dana, Bheda and Dandam come to mind. Danda gives instantaneous results. Nowadays corporate punishment is prohibited in schools.

Among causes of victory, among victors I am Nitihi or diplomacy. It leads to success.

Among secrets, I am, maunam. Maunam also represents Brahman. In silence there is nothing but Consciousness. In Mandukya Upanishad it says, nothingness is witnessed by consciousness.

Among or in wise people, I am wisdom. When you perform namaskrara to a gyani, you are doing namaskara to his Gyanam or God himself.

Shloka # 39:

यच्चापि सर्वभूतानां बीजं तदहमर्जुन
तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम्।।10.39।।

And that which is seed of all beings, I am, Arjuna! That which is without Me, mobile or stationary, exists not.

Here Sri Krishna concludes enumeration of his glories. He says I am the seed or material cause of creation. Clay is material cause of all earthenware; gold is material cause of all ornaments; wood is material cause of all furniture etc. Material cause expresses as effect or existence. When I say an ornament “is”, the “Is” ness belongs to Gold alone; while ornament itself is just a nama and rupa. Remove gold from ornament, it loses its existence.

Therefore when you say wall is: Isness belongs to me; when you say: fan is: Isness belongs to me; In short, I am the Sat in the creation; I am existence in every being. Therefore, there is nothing in creation, moving or stationary that exists, without my blessing. Who is God? Is ness is the God; all others are nama rupa only.  Thus he started with chit, ended with sat; chit and sat are nirguna Ishvara vibhuthi; and all others are saguna Ishvara vibhuthi; vibhuthi means mahima.

Shloka # 40:

नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परंतप
एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया।।10.40।।

Scourge of foes! There is no limit to My divine powers. What has been stated by Me is only illustrative of the extent of that puissance (power).

Here Sri Krishna says, Arjuna, I have stopped enumerating my glories. If I have to list all of them it is inexhaustible. My intention is to give a sample of glories. My divine glories have no end. Why then enumerate them? This enumeration is only a random sample of my glories. How to extend this list? Sri Krishna says, I will tell you how to do it by yourself.

Shloka # 41:

यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वं श्रीमदूर्जितमेव वा
तत्तदेवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजोंऽशसंभवम्।।10.41।।

Whatever being has power, glory, or energy, know (each of them) to be born of a part of My splendor.

Sri Krishna says you can make your own list. When you see creation in daily life, if you see something that is wonderful (natural or artificial) that makes you awe struck or rich or abundant or powerful, like energy of sun; anything beautiful, when you see it, remember Me. When you see such a thing you prostate and hand it over to temple. Powerful, rich, etc are all an infinitesimal part of god’s glory; that is why we worship nature.

Shloka # 42:

अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन
विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत्।।10.42।।

O Arjuna! Wherefore should you know so much of all these? Encompassing this entire world by a fragment of My power, do I abide, eternally.

Sri Krishna says, Arjuna! you can look at all this from a different perspective as well. Thus water being present in every wave; bubble or drop is one way of looking at water. Really speaking, all waves, bubbles and drops are all in water.

In a similar manner the whole creation is in Me. I remain supporting this creation or another way of seeing it is, that this entire creation is in Me.

Space is not within this hall; that is not the correct statement; rather all the Halls are in space. Similarly Bhagavan is not in the living beings; but all living beings are in Bhagavan; and that too they do not occupy the whole Bhagavan; I am only sustaining them; in one corner of Me; So the whole cosmos is only occupying a part of Me; so how big I am; so the whole cosmos is like a bubble in Me; the ocean; So with this Krishna concludes the description of His glories.

Take away:

Tamo guna makes a person lazy with neither materialistic inclination, nor spiritual inclination.

A tamasic person must cultivate material desires and then go on to spiritual desires. That spiritual desire is Satva Guna.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Baghawat Geeta, Class 138: Chapter 10, Verses 33 – 35

Shloka # 33:

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य
अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताऽहं विश्वतोमुखः।।10.33।।

Aksaranam, of the letters; I am the akarah, letter a. Samasikasya, of the group of compound words, I am the compund (called) Dvandva. Besides, aham eva, I Myself; am the aksayah, infinite, endless; kalah, time, well known as ‘moment’ etc.; or, I am the supreme God who is Kala (Time, the measurer) even of time. I am the dhata, Dispenser, the dispenser of the fruits of actions of the whole world, visvatomukhah, with faces everywhere.


Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, we are seeing Sri Krishna continue enumeration of the glories of Ishwara. In Shloka # 33, he said that among Aksharas I am Aa. Sarasvati Devi is in the form of Alphabetic letters. Even among all letters Aa is most sacred. It is sacred because it is a basic letter that emerges from our mouth without doing anything to the mouth. Thus sounds such as E, U come about by some modification to the mouth whereas Aa is an effortless sound of the mouth. Akara is also a flexible sound that can be modified into other alphabets. Hence Aa kara is considered Karana aksharam, causal sound, while all other alphabets are considered Karya Aksharam, the effect. Vedas say that A Kara manifests as all other letters. It says all letters are a modification of Aa. In our tradition every alphabet has a presiding deity. The presiding deity of Aa is Brahmaji, the Creator of the world. Since Aa is the cause of all letters, Sri Krishna says, I am letter Aa.

Samasha:  Are compound words that are properly arranged. By compound words I save prepositions. Citing an example, in the sentence, I bought puja material really means I bought material for puja. Puja material is thus a compound word. Similarly, the sentence, I went to Shiva temple, really means I went to a temple where Shiva is worshipped. Similarly, Ganga water really means water from Ganga.

And how do you know what preposition is to be used; you know it from the context thus Ganga water means water from Ganga; Pooja material means material for pooja. And Adayar class does not mean classes

From Adayar rather it means classes conducted in Adayar. So in which place, which preposition is to be used, we get to know from the context.

Similarly, when I say I went to Birla Mandir, what I really mean is that I went to a temple built by Birla, which is the context.

This compound formation is very systematic. Four basic compounds are enumerated and these four are later expanded into 7 types of compound, then these types of compounds are further expanded into 35 types of compounds; Thus we have many compounds called samasaha; and these group of compounds are called

Saamasikam. Samasikam means samasanam samuham; the group of compound are:

tatpurusha samas; bahuvrihi samasa; karmadharaya samas; Dvigu samas; dvandva samas; avyayibhaava samas.  In Sanskrit we can compound words, which can contain tens of words joined together.  Thus, Kalidasa’s Shyamala Dandakam has many samasaha words. Therefore, among compounds I am Dvanda samasaha, says, Sri Krishna.

Kala Tatvam:

Sri Krishna says I am Kala Tatvam that puts an end to everything however kala itself has no end, meaning it is inexhaustible time. Even in pralaya, kala continues into the next creation. And because of the continuity of kala

alone, the next cycle of shristi is possible. Therefore Sri Krishna says I am the kala tatvam, which is inexhaustible.

Dhata: means karma phala dhata. One who gives appropriate karmas at right place, at right time, to right person, for all beings in the Universe. Sri Krishna says I am Karma phala dhata.


He also says, my face is turned in all directions, so I can see everywhere.

Shloka # 34:

मृत्युः सर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्च भविष्यताम्
कीर्तिः श्रीर्वाक्च नारीणां स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः क्षमा।।10.34।।

And I am Death, the destroyer of all; and the prosperity of those destined to be prosperous. Of the feminine (I am) fame, beauty, speech, memory, intelligence, fortitude and forbearance.


I am greatest robber, Kala, who will take away everything from a jiva. We can’t take anything at time of death. What you can carry at death is only one’s papam and punyam. Thus, death, or Yama, takes everything from you.

Citing a story, a man had a lot of property. He wanted to give it away. He challenged that one has to run as far as possible from sunrise to sun set, the distance, in land, covered would be given as a gift to runner. One person took the challenge and ran; as he came to closer to sunset, he wanted to get more distance and ran the last few minutes very hard and in doing so, he collapsed and died. So, what happened to all the land he acquired?

So, I am destroyer, samhara tatvam, Says Sri Krishna.


I am Udbhava, meaning source of future prosperity or wealth. The resource or source of all the future prosperity or future wealth; because if you have to

produce anything in future, they all must be there potentially; we can never generate anything if that provision is not there and Sri Krishna says that provision is myself.

Kirti, Sri, Nari, Smriti, Medha:

Female Devatas such as Mahalaxmi, goddess of wealth; Sarawati, goddess of knowledge and Parwati, Goddess of Shakti are called adhishtana devatas. Why do we have these devatas? Some universal laws govern everything. Such laws govern even our organs. These laws function because of an intelligent principle. For every government law too there is an officer required to maintain it. Any law is governed by an intelligent principle.

Thus it flows as follows: Higher Intelligence> Laws> Object.

Adhishatna devatas include Bhumi devata, alphabet devata etc are all aspects of Ishwara or God or Total intelligence.

So God for Kirti, name and fame, is called Kirti devata. Similarly we have Vak devata, Smriti devata, and Medha devata. Vedas have prayers for all such Devatas, thus there is a medha suktam.

Dhriti: means Perseverance or will power or continued effort despite failures. It is the resilience like a rubber ball that bounces back. There are several types of people. One who upon failing renounces every thing. The other type is a person, who upon failing, keeps trying again and again.

I am Dhriti says Sri Krishna.


Medha means intelligence principle; we do not know why some brains are very intelligent and others not. So there are again laws governing this and that devatha is called medha devatha; and we have got Vedic prayers directed to medha such as  medha sukhtam; a special prayer for medha devi;

Kshama: means Patience or the capacity to wait. It is often tested at traffic stops where we have to wait. I am Kshama says, Sri Krishna.

Shloka # 35:

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम्
मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः।।10.35।।

I am also the Brhat-sama of the Sama (-mantras); of the metres, Gayatri. Of the months I am Marga-sirsa, and among seasons, spring.

Sama Mantra:

Among sama mantras, I am Brihat Sama, a mantra, a very suspicious one, glorifying the Lord. This mantra praises God; hence it is known as Brihat or infinite one. I am Brihat Sama mantra, says Sri Krishna.

Gayathri Mantra:

I am gayathri mantra among all Veda mantras, says Sri Krishna. The word Chandas has two meanings; one is it is a Vedic meter and second one is, it is a Vedic mantra as well. Chandas provides rules of poetry. There are many chandas such as Anushtup, Trishtup etc.

Among Vedic mantras I am Gayathri. Gayathri has two meanings. Gayathri is a meter consisting of three lines, with 8 letters in each. Gayatri is also a mantra. Why is Gayathri glorius? Its main glory is that it is Veda saraha. Brahmaji wanted to take essence of vedas (Rg, Yajur and Sama) and he got gayathri.

Thus, we have:

Rg veda sara: Tatsavitha varenyam

Yajur Veda sara: Bhargo devasya Dhimahi

Sama Veda sara: Dhiyo yonaha prachodayat.

This mantra was originally called Savitri mantra. Savithri is name of Surya devata. It was set in gayathri meter hence it is called gayathri.

Also, Om Bhur Bhuvaha is not part of Gayatri mantra, it was added to aide the chanting of the mantra.

Since it is essence of Vedas, it is called Veda itself. Hence father teaches Gayathri to son and it continues on.

Gayathri mantra protects one from all papams or invisible negative effects. How come all people are not allowed to chant Gayathri?

Only one’s who are initiated can chant Shrauta Gayathri.

Shrauta Gayathri is from Vedas.

Smartha gayathri can be chanted by anyone. Smartha Gayatri is from Smriti’s.

Smartha gayatri is as follows:

yo devah savitasmakam dhiyo dharmati gocarah|

prerayet tasya yat bhargah tatvarenya mupasmaheh ||

Essence of Gayathri mantra:

The meaning is very simple: we are meditating upon the sacred efflugence of Sun God.

And why are we meditating and worshipping Gayathri? What do we get out of it? Gayathri is that effulgence which activates our intelligence or buddhi. So therefore, I worship the solar effulgence, because it is supposed to activate my brain; my medha shakti increases, memory power increases; and that is why for brahmacharis, or students, gayathri was emphasized; because it gives every student memory power.

Gayathri activates buddhi shakti; and therefore Sri Krishna says, I am Gayatri Mantra; if a person does not chant the gayatri; he loses all the advantages of being a vaidika purusha.

And it is said in our tradition that without chanting gayatri; whatever other mantras one chants, they all will not be that effective; on the other hand, if he chants gayatri, then no other mantra is required at all.

And furthermore, gayathri itself is divided into two based upon how it is read; thus,one says, tat savithu varenyam while other says tat savithu vare niyam; Second one has 24 letters, while first one 23 letters. One with 24 letters is called gayathri. Second one with 23 letters is called nichir Gayathri. During sandhyavandhanam; one is supposed to chant nichir gayathri;


Among 12 months of the year I am Marga shirsha or the period from Dec 15 to January 15.

Take away:

Gayathri: Its main glory is that it is Veda saraha.

Gayathri’s meaning: We are meditating upon the sacred efflugence of Sun God.

If a person does not chant the Gayathri, he loses all the advantages of being a Vaidika purusha.

Once you chant Gayathri, you don’t need to chant any other mantra.

During sandhyavandhanam we are supposed to chant the nichir gayathri with 23 letters.

Smartha gayatri is as follows:

yo devah savitasmakam dhiyo dharmati gocarah|

prerayet tasya yat bhargah tatvarenya mupasmaheh ||

Smartha Gayathri can be chanted by anyone.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Baghawat Geeta, Class 137: Chapter 10, Verses 30 to 33

Shloka # 30:

प्रह्लादश्चास्मि दैत्यानां कालः कलयतामहम्
मृगाणां मृगेन्द्रोऽहं वैनतेयश्च पक्षिणाम्।।10.30।।

Daityanam, among demons, the descendants of Diti, I am the one called Prahlada. And I am kalah, Time; kalayatam, among reckoners of time, of those who calculate. And mrganam, among animals; I am mrgendrah, the loin, or the tiger. And paksinam, among birds; (I am) vainateyah, Garuda, the son of Vinata.

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, we are seeing Sri Krishna enumerate the glories of Ishwara. The entire creation is a manifestation and glory of the Lord. Sri Krishna chooses a few specialties as his glory. They can be chosen to invoke God. Even though all rivers are glorious, Ganga can be used to invoke god. Hence Ganga is considered scared. Everyone enumerated can be an alambanam. Many are identified from mythological stories. Thus he cites in shloka # 30 about Prahlada. Prahlada stuthi in the Bhagavatham is a very well known sthothram; in which we find the highest

Vedanta talked about. In the Bhagavatham there are many stuthis or sthothrams; Dhruva stuthi; Prahlada sthuthi; Kunthi sthuthi; Bhishma sthuthi; each character

glorifies the Lord and the beauty is, in those sthothrams not only the puranic glories are there; the highest Vedanta is also packed in those stuthis and among them Prahlada is also a great one.

It is an important one because even though Prahlada is born an asura, by his spiritual sadhana he could change his character and become a Gyani. Therefore one need not feel bad about one’s janma; jati does not indicate superiority or inferiority;

He was son of an Asura who changed. His jati did not matter. It was his guna that finally mattered. Karma with proper attitude makes one a guna Brahmana.

I am also Kala tatvam to ripen karmas at the right time. Karmas of groups of people also fructify at the same time. A sick person’s papam fructifies. Another person serving me (sick person) is my punyam; while it is his papam that he has to serve me even while losing his sleep. So God becomes kala delivering the right karma at right time to right person.

Among animals I am Lion. Among birds I am Garuda, son of Vinata. Garuda is Vahanam of Vishnu. In Vaishnavism there is a Garuda Alwar or a great devotee.

Shloka # 31:

पवनः पवतामस्मि रामः शस्त्रभृतामहम्
झषाणां मकरश्चास्मि स्रोतसामस्मि जाह्नवी।।10.31।।

Pavatam, of the purifiers; I am pavanah, air. Sastra-bhrtam, among weilders of weapons, I am Rama, son of Dasaratha. Jhasanam, among fishes etc; I am the particular species of fish called makarah shark. I am jahnavi, Ganga; srotasam, among rivers, among streams of water.

Among purifiers (ganga jalam, fire, wind etc) I am Vayu. Hence we worship Vayu; we also worship Agni. Among Gods who wield weapons I am Rama with the bow Kodandapani. Thus, gods have weapons to protect dharma.

Thus, Lord Shiva has got his parashu hastha; he has got parashu; he is called Pinakapani; the one who has got a bow called Pinakam; and Rama is called Kothandapani; Vishnu is called Sarngapani; not Sarangapani.

Initially one protects by non-violence. Only as a last resort is violence used. Even Rama gave Ravana one last chance. Even in Mahabharata Sri Krishna met kauravas one last time to avoid war. For Kshatriya dharma yudha is a dharma. It is like a doctor amputating a limb to save a person. In case of devotees, how will god use his weapon? Here too God uses weapon to destroy our inner enemies (kama, krodha, moha etc). So with Sudarashana chakram, right knowledge, Lord destroys Agyanam.

Among water animals I am Makara, the whale. Among rivers I am Janhavi or Ganga. Ganga is a papam remover as well. According to Vedanta Ganga symbolizes flow of spiritual knowledge. Thus following are common features:

  1. Ganga originates from Lord Shiva’s head. Brahma Vidya also comes from Lord Shiva.
  2. River flows from higher level to lower level. Generally Guru’s are seated at higher level and knowledge flows from Guru to Shishya.
  3. Ganga is a perennial river. Brahma vidya also is perennial. What is proof of this? The fact that we are able to learn this Vidya is the proof.
  4. When you dip in Ganga you feel refreshed. In same way, Vedanta teaching is also refreshing to one.
  5. Even though Ganga flows from Gomukh to Calcutta, you can take a dip in it only at Ghat with steps. So also Brahmavidya, you can only dip at Guru’s Ghat.

Shloka # 32:

सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्च मध्यं चैवाहमर्जुन
अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदतामहम्।।10.32।।

O Arjuna sarganam, of creations; I am the adih, beginning; ca, and ; he antah, end; ca eva, as also; the madhyam, middle-I am the origin, continuance and dissolution. At the commencement (verse 20) origin, end, etc. only of things possessed of souls were spoken of, but here the mention is of all creations in general. This is the difference. Vidyanam, among knowledges; I am the adhyatma-vidya, knowledge of the Self, it being the foremost because of its leading to liberation. Pravadatam, of those who date; aham, I; am vadah, Vada, which is preeminent since it is a means to determining true purport. Hence I am that . By the word pravadatam are here meant the different kinds of date held by dators, viz Vada, Jalpa, and Vitanda. [Vada: discussion with open-mindedness, with a view to determining true purport; jalpa: pointless date; Vitanda: wrangling discussion. [Jalpa is that mode of date by which both parties establish their own viewpoint through direct and indirect proofs, and refute the view of the opponent through circumvention (Chala) and false generalization (Jati) and by pointing out unfitness (of the opponent) tobe argued with (Nigraha-sthana). But where one party establishes his viewpoint, and the other refutes it through circumvention, false generalization and showing the unfitness of the opponent to be argued with, without establishing his own views, that is termed Vitanda. Jalpa and Vitanda result only in a trial of streangth between the opponents, who are both desirous of victory, But the result of Vada is the ascertainment of truth between the teacher and the disciple or between others, both unbiased.

Among creations, I am beginning, end and middle. Sri Krishna said the same in shloka # 20. How to reconcile this? One indicates spatially while second looks at time wise; Srishti, Sthiti and Laya karanam.

Vidya means any disciple of knowledge; any science is called Vidya and there are so many branches of

knowledge in our tradition such as: the four vedas; shiksha, kalpa, vyakaranam, niruktham, chanda, jyothisham etc.; there are so many branches in the sciences and the modern sciences are many as you know, and among all of them, I am the spiritual knowledge.

Among sciences, I am Atma Gyanam. In chapter # 9 it was called Raja Vidhya, self-knowledge that says Atma is the only reality, all others are unreal.

Thus, Apara Vidya is Avidya and Paravidya is Gyanam.

It is only self-knowledge that liberates a human being from our limitations.

The sense of physical limitation is expressed in the form of our desire to accumulate more and more and more because with myself I feel I am limited; So I have a sense of physical limitation, I have a sense of emotional limitation, that I am not loved by all; I am not loved by own children; no one enquires about me; they do not even check whether we are there or not; so all these are all what; emotional deprivation; emotional sense of limitation; Then the next level of limitation is intellectual; any amount I know, I know that I do not know much; the greater I know, the greater the ignorance is exposed; and therefore, this sense of limitation is samsara and any branch of knowledge other than self-knowledge will not remove this limitation; In fact, not only it will not remove, it will create only further limitation; like Newton said; thousands of discoveries he made and at the time of death, he declared that I was playing with a few pebbles on the shore, while the vast ocean of truth is in front. Therefore, material sciences will only increase the sense of limitation; whereas this is the only knowledge give me poornatvam.

No other branch other than self-knowledge can remove these limitations. Material science will increase sense of limitation while self-knowledge alone will give Poornatvam.

This is also the rarest of knowledge. Many don’t come to this knowledge. The number of people who know this are indeed very rare.

Then the next one Vadaha means a discussion for arriving at the truth. In our tradition, they talk about several types of discussions; anything you take, they have studied thoroughly; they talk about vadaha; they talk about jalpa, they about vithanda; they talk about jathi; they talk about chalam; these are all different types of discussions, And vadaha or samvadaha between guru and Shishya, both are meant for only one purpose and that is arriving at the truth; whereas in all other discussions, arriving at the truth is not the aim, winning the argument is the aim; and hence the expression heated argument.

Doing namaskara to teacher means I will set aside without my ego or notions.

Whenever I am in agreement with you, you accept me; which means what; you hold on to your view alone; this is called filtered listening; whichever is convenient you take and the other things you are not able to drop. That means I lack intellectual honesty; therefore a discussion wherein I set aside my ego; wherein I am ready to openly accept, not mentally verbally accept my mistake and I am interested in listening to other persons; it is the most difficult thing in any discussion or dialogue; our mind is itching to talk; and we are waiting for that person to take a breath; at that time you enter and you finish off your arguments; So if I can listen in a relaxed manner to the other person and similarly I talk, that is called vada or samvada; that alone will lead to discovery of truth; and therefore Sri Krishna claims that I am vadaha.

Shloka # 33:

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य
अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताऽहं विश्वतोमुखः।।10.33।।

Aksaranam, of the letters; I am the akarah, letter a. Samasikasya, of the group of compound words, I am the compund (called) Dvandva. Besieds, aham eva, I Myself; am the aksayah, infinite, endless; kalah, time, well known as ‘moment’ etc.; or, I am the supreme God who is Kala (Time, the measurer) even of time. I am the dhata, Dispenser, the dispenser of the fruits of actions of the whole world; visvatomukhah, with faces everwhere.

Among letters I am letter Aa. In English language Aa does not exist. In all Indian languages Aa is first letter. It is most fundamental sound, because when you open your mouth, the sound that comes is Aa. All other sounds are modified versions of Aa alone. By changing your mouth you can show teeth and it becomes Ee .Thus Aa’s modifications result in other sounds. Thus, Aa is Karana Aksharam while others are Karya Aksharani.

Take away:

  1. It is only self-knowledge that liberates a human being from our mental, emotional and intellectual limitations.
  2. Sri Krishna emphasizes non-judgmental and relaxed listening. We need to improve our listening skills.

With Best Wishes,


Ram Ramaswamy



Baghawat Geeta, Class 136: Chapter 10, Verses 27 to 30

Shloka 10. 27:

उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानां विद्धि माममृतोद्भवम्
ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणां नराणां नराधिपम्।।10.27।।

 10.27 Among horses, know Me to be Uccaihsravas, born of nectar; Airavata among the lordly elephants; and among men, the Kind of men. [Uccaihsravas and Airavata are respectively the divine horse and elephant of Indra.]

 Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, Sri Krishna continues his description of his glories and many glories are available in this world itself for perception such as the sun, moon, and sometimes puranic stories as well. Two stories are prominent, one is Ganga avatharanam and other is Samudra manthanam. We started the Samudra manthanam story in the last class.

Devas and Asuras planned to churn the milky ocean so that they can get amrutham out of it; and then if they partake the Amrutham, they will get immortality. So, with this plan, they brought the Manthara mountain for churning and they brought Vasuki as the rope and later Bhagavan Vishnu had to come as Kurma avathara to hold the Manthara mountain while churning; otherwise it was going down; and initially they had differences of opinion, but somehow they managed and started churning and varieties of things appeared. Fourteen virtuous things came out of the manthanam.

Kalidasa wrote a prayer called Mangalashtakam; which is supposed to be chanted in the morning, and in this prayer he talks about various sacred things including the 14 rathnas or precious things which came out of the milky ocean.

They are:

1) Laksmi Devi; she is samudra tanaya. Samudra raja wanted a boy for Laksmi; Shiva and Vishnu were potential matches; The raja gave Lakshmi to Vishnu as he was well dressed and Shiva did not even know how to dress properly and therefore a poet says that if you want a good girl, dress up well.

Spiritually, by the practice of sadhana, a churning of satvic mind occurs and from this churning various glories come to him such as sidhis.

These siddhis, that are worldly benefits, are more obstacles in spiritual progress. All these ratnams are sidhis and are distractions; and devas were not interested in them; they wanted amrutam or moksha.

  1. Halahala: the poison came out. It represents psychological problems in course of spiritual journey. They arise from subconscious mind from past experiences. In Mandukya Upanishad Gaudapada talks of four obstacles in meditation. One of them is called Kashayam, meaning deeply suppressed problems of past arising from mind. For some they come up as anxiety, fear, etc. One Acharya calls it Stabdhi bhava, or a mind stuck, also called kashayam. In Gurukula, when this happens, you don’t to worry about anything as Brahmachari has no family, no cooking to do, etc. These are called Halahala, our own mind problems, rising from churning shastra vichara. Only remedy for this was that Lord had to swallow the problem. For us the solution is to surrender the problem to god and let him absorb the problem.

Lakshmi, Kaustubha, Parijatha are all Siddhi’s. If you persevere you will get amritham or atma gyanam. Another poet wrote that there are five Vedas, Mahabharata being the fifth one.

We have 9 planets that affect us. A daughter, if married, the son-in-law is the tenth planet that affects you.

In Shloka # 27 Sri Krishna says, among horses, I am Uchiravas that came from churning. How did it emerge? It emerged during amrutha manthanam.

He says, among elephants, I am Airavatam, a wise elephant from heaven. Among humans, I am the king. King is taken as a manifestation of God. He has to support dharma and protect it.

Shloka # 28:

आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक्
प्रजनश्चास्मि कन्दर्पः सर्पाणामस्मि वासुकिः।।10.28।।

Ayudhanam, among weapons; I am the vajram, thunderbolt, made of the bones of (the sage) Dadhici. Dhenunam, among milch cows; I am kama-dhuk, Kamadhenu, which was the yielder of all desires of (the sage) Vasistha; or it means a cow in general which gives milk at all times. I am Kandarpa, prajanah, the Progenitor, (the god) Kama (Cupid). Sarpanam, among serpents, among the various serpents, I am Vasuki, the king of serpents.

Among the weapons I am Vajram. Vajrayudam is the special weapon of Indra; and in the purana, the

story is given how this special weapon was taken out of the backbone of Dadichi maharishi; that Dadichi maharishi had done plenty of tapas and therefore his body had become very strong for the special purpose of destroying Vrthrasura. To destroy Vrthrasura, Dadichi Maharishi sacrificed his life and out of his backbone vajrayudam was made; therefore it has got the strength born out of tapas shakthi, because we consider spiritual power or meditative power is much stronger than the material power.

Vishwamitra and Vasishta once fought. All missiles of Vishwamitra fell in front of Vasishtas dandas. Physical and material strength is nothing in front of power of Tapas. That is how Vishwamitra became a Brahma Rishi. This shows how Varna can be changed. Thus character is more important than birth.

Among milk cows, Dhenu, I am Kama dhenu. Why Kama dhenu? Because she can yield anything you want. Pray to her; you will get your wishes. Kamadhenu also came from churning. Mind is kamadhenu. It can create anything. All our advances are from our intellect. We can also attain moksha by using our intellect.

Desire: is called Manmatha or Kandarpa. Desire is greatest producer of things. First a desire rises then it becomes an actuality. As per Vedanta this comes from our Karmas. Necessity is the mother of creation; it expresses as desire. Among creators I am desire, including desire for children.

Among serpents, poisonous ones, I am Vasuki, Shivas ornament. Snake symbolizes ahamkara . So ahamkara is the greatest poison, which leads to kartrtvam and karma phalam and punarapi janamam and punarapi maranam samsara.

Lord Shiva knows how to handle this snake hence it is an ornament. Atma Gyanam teaches how to handle ahamkara. And therefore for a Gyani, ahamkara becomes a bhushanam, an ornament. Just as poisonous snake is an ornament for Lord Shiva; the poisonous ahamkara is an ornament for a Gyani.

Shloka # 29:

अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानां वरुणो यादसामहम्
पितृ़णामर्यमा चास्मि यमः संयमतामहम्।।10.29।।

Naganam, among snakes, of a particular species of snakes; asmi, I am Ananta, the King of snakes. And Varuna, the King yadasam, of the gods of the waters. Pitrnam, among the manes; I am the King of the manes, named Aryama. And samyamatam, among the maintainers of law and order I am Yama.

Among nagas, I am Anantaha. Nagas are non-poisonous snakes, while sarpas are poisonous snakes. Philosophically ananta means nirguna Brahman that remains after destroying everything. Thus Adi Sesha remains after everything has been destroyed. Hence the name Seshasayi means the ultimate remainder.

Yadas: Water Devata is Yada. There are many of them such as river gods, lake gods etc. Among them all I am Varuna Devata who presides over ocean. Varuna is worshipped in Sayam sandhya as well. In evening once sun has set, Varuna is worshipped.

There are many devatas in Pitrloka. Depending upon one’s punya you go there. It is presided by Aryama, a Vedic deity. I am Aryama, says Sri Krishna. All Shradhas , ancestral offerings, go to Aryama.

Among controllers of universe I am Yama or Kala Tatvam. Yama is controller of time.

Shloka # 30:

प्रह्लादश्चास्मि दैत्यानां कालः कलयतामहम्
मृगाणां मृगेन्द्रोऽहं वैनतेयश्च पक्षिणाम्।।10.30।।

Daityanam, among demons, the descendants of Diti, I am the one called Prahlada. And I am kalah, Time; kalayatam, among reckoners of time, of those who calculate. And mrganam, among animals; I am mrgendrah, the loin, or the tiger. And paksinam, among birds; (I am) vainateyah, Garuda, the son of Vinata.

Diti is the wife of Kashyapa Prajapathihi, who is an important personality mentioned in the puranas. When Brahmaji created 14 Prajāapati came first and from the 14 prajapatis alone, the entire humanity emerged.

And therefore these Prajapatis are enumerated; among them the most prominent one is Kashyapa; and Aditi is his wife; Didi is another wife and Adithi’s children are called Devas and Diti’s children are called asuras. So Devas and asuras are born to two different mother’s while father is one and the same; Devas represent positive healthy thoughts; asuras represent unhealthy thought; all from one Kashyapa Prajapati. Thus, we get both Deva vritthis as well as asura vriththis; out of two different wives; one is called satva guna wife; and the other is called rajo guna wife; out of these three gunas, especially these two gunas; satva and rajas, two types of vrithis are generated; one is called daivi sampath; and the other is called asuri sampath; we will see more on this in the 16th chapter.

Even among asuras a great devotee called Prahlada was born to Hiranyakashapu. Prahlada is remembered among great devotees in morning prayers. He was born an asura but he was a person with satva guna. This shows that Jati is not important it is one’s guna that makes it important. Therefore caste system is not correct.

Among one’s who keep account, as accountant, of punya and papam I am Kala Tatvam. Every deliberate action is a karma. Every karma has to produce a result at appropriate time; Kala or Dharmaraja performs this. I am kala tatvam responsible for manifesting every karma.

Vaishyas are called Guptas, or secretive one’s. Kshatriyas are called Varmas. Brahmanas are called Sharmas. Thus, we also worship Chitra Gupta.

Among animals, I am Lion.

Take away:

With Best Wishes,


Ram Ramaswamy



Mandukya Upanishad, Class 15

Mantra # 9:

जागरितस्थानो वैश्वानरोऽकारः

प्रथमा मात्राऽऽप्तेरादिमत्त्वाद्वाप्नोति

वै सर्वान्कामानादिश्च

भवति एवं वेद

He who is Vaishvanara having for his sphere of activity the waking state is Aa the first letter of AUM, on account of its “ all pervasiveness” or on account of “ being the first”- these two are the common features in both. One who knows this surely attains the fulfillment of all his desires and becomes the first or the foremost among all.

Swamiji said from Mantra # 3 to Mantra # 7 the Upanishad analyzed chatushpada atma; Here we travel gradually from Vishwa toTaijasa to Pragya to Turiyam. In Vishwa, I am the consciousness, which is the witness of gross universe. In Taijasa I am consciousness that is witness of subtle universe. In Pragya I am consciousness that is the witness of the causal universe, which I experience as total blankness. In Sushupti when I am experiencing total it is the experience of whole universe in potential form.

In Vishwa my attention is on object I. In Taijasa I am conscious witness of sukshma prapancha. In Pargya, I am witness of Karana parapancha. In Turiyam I turn my attention to I the observer who am there even as sthula, sukshma and Pragya are all changing. Thus Vishwa, Taijasa and Pragya are stepping stones to land in Turiyam.  This Turiyam was described in mantra # 7.

Now we are starting to turn out attention to Chatur matra OM kara; travelling from A to U to M where I turn my attention to consciousness, one that is aware of silence. Thus sound is an object of my awareness; then Silence is an object of my awareness then to the awareness itself that is a witness of the silence. Thus when sound is not, awareness is still there; when silence is not, awareness is still there; when silence is there, it is the awareness of silence. So starting with awareness of sound, awareness of silence, thus Omkara Vichara is travelling from sound to silence to awareness of silence. Here sound is an object; silence is an object while the awareness is not an object. This awareness continues in silence and sound. Awareness and witness are used synonymously.

So, how to do I make use of Omkara upasana to land into my own awareness?  To develop the skill of Omkara Vichara initially I learn to equate the four padas to the four matras and let the mind absorb this equation completely.

Now we move to mantra # 9 where Vishwa and Aa kara are equated.

Here, Vishwa (Vaishwanara) and Aa kara are equated. Upanishad prescribes a meditation to equate and assimilate the knowledge. Sound Aa is taken as symbol to meditate upon. Aa represents Virat or Vishwa rupa; thus during meditation the whole gross atma comes up. Thus shaligramam is an object of reverence for an Indian. This perspective comes from generations of association, while a foreigner just sees it as a piece of art.

Two common features of Aa and Virat are:

  1. Virat is first gross creation and after Virat all other creations came about. Among alphabets too Aa is the first letter.
  2. The pervasion of both. Aa sound has transformed into all other letters. Aa inheres in all alphabets. Sri Krishna says in chapter # 10, I am Aa kara. Virat and Aa kara are both all-pervading or Vyapti.

Phalam for this Upasana is:

Worldly results: In mantra, Veda means Upasana. Here Upasaka attains all kamas and pervades his possessions or expands them. His family expands; property and possession all expand. One who meditates on Aa kara and Vishwa in life will become foremost in any field he enters, hence the word Aadishcha Bhavati is used.

Above were the material results of the Upasana.

Spiritual benefits are: His capacity to equate Aa with Vishwa expands. In meditation, when he practices Vedantic meditation, mind thinks of Vishwa, Taijasa, and Pragya; it also goes to Hiranyagarbha, Antaryami and Chaitanya adhishtanam. The silence will not be blankness; it will represent consciousness behind silence. The stillness in Omkara meditation will land in Consciousness.

Mantra # 10:

जागरितस्थानो वैश्वानरोऽकारःप्रथमा मात्राऽऽप्तेरादिमत्त्वाद्वाप्नोति

वै सर्वान्कामानादिश्च

 भवति एवं वेद

He who is Taijasa, having for his sphere of activity in the dream state, Is U the second letter of AUM; on account of “superiority” or on account of “ being in between the two”. He who knows this attains to a superior knowledge and is treated equally by all and finds no one in his line of descendants who is not a knower of Brahman.

Now comes equation of second pada, Taijasa (Vyashti) or Hiranyagarbha (Samashti) is equated with U kara. In Sanskrit, joining of alphabets Aa and U creates O. It is a symbol for meditation on second pada or Swapna or Taijasa. Here too there are two common features between them; they are:

  1. Hiranyagarbha, the subtle, is superior to Virat, the gross. So also the sound U is superior to Aa. Why is it superior? Subtle is always superior to gross. From Hiranyagarbha comes Virat. Sukshma is a Karanam while Virat is a Karyam. Virat is born from Hiranyagarbha. At destruction, Virat goes back into Hiranyagarbha.

U is Utkrshat or superior to Aa. Aa becomes U which then become M. Thus U swallows Aa as such it is superior.

  1. Ubhayataha: intermediary status. In Vishwa, Taijasa and Pragya; among them Taijasa is in the middle; U too is in the middle. May you learn to meditate on these two. Try to see subtle universe, the cosmic mind, all packaged in U. This is U kara Hiranyagarbha Upasana.

What is benefit of this Upasana? By practicing Sakama upsana, following benefits accrue:

  1. Because he meditates on Gyana Shakti, it is an upasana on Saraswati or Samasto Gyana Upasana. This person will become learned. Santati means extent of knowledge. Utkrashati means increases.
  2. Samanascha Bhavati: He will become a common man to all. He will be accepted by all groups; he will not be a part of any camp; he will be liked by all; a mediator.

His knowledge will influence his family; his family will also be learned or will be Brahma Gyani’s.

If a person practices Nishkama Upasana, this equation will help him in Omkara Uapasana. In his mind whole universe will come up and resolve itself into silence.

Mantra # 11:

सुषुप्तस्थानः प्राज्ञो मकारस्तृतीया मात्रा

 मितेरपीतेर्वा मिनोति वा

 इदं सर्वमपीतिश्च भवति

एवं वेद ११

Pragya, whose sphere of activity is deep sleep, is M the third letter of AUM, because it is both the “measure” and also “ that wherein all become one”. One who knows this identity of Pragya and M is able to know the real nature of things and beings, and also come to realize as being the Self of all.

The third mantra is M kara; this M is equated to Pragya or Antaryami or Ishwara. In Upanishad, the fifth and sixth mantras described Pragyaha as obtaining in deep sleep. At cosmic level it is called Pralayam and at individual level it is called Laya or sleep. These two also have two common features.

They are:

  1. Apithe: ground of dissolution or merger or disintegration. Pragya is sleep state, when whole universe dissolves, just as in pralayam. My worries, knowledge etc, dissolve in sleep. At Samashti, Ishwara dissolves everything in him. Apitihi is Laya sthanam.

M is also Laya sthana. When you close mouth the sound that comes out is Mm. Mm is thus resolution ground for all alphabetic letters.

2) Mithihi: A measuring vessel. Pragya is compared to a measure. Mm is also compared to a measure.

When people measure, say in a village, the grain disappears in the measure and then, when, one pours out the grain becomes visible again; this is similar to un-manifesting and manifesting.

Pragya is also like a measure. When I go to sleep, my world goes into Me, the Pragyaha and becomes invisible. When I wake up, it all reappears again. It repeats when I go to sleep again. So, Pragyaha is also a measure.

It is same with letter M. After speaking, I close my mouth with M. All other sounds are resolved. They again come back when I talk again. Thus, it is similar to a measure as well.

This measure-ness is a common feature. So during meditation see the M sound and visualize the hidden universe.

The benefits of this meditation are that one who practices M kara Antaryami Upasana gets two worldly benefits.

  1. Because of the “measure upsana” he will be able to measure everyone and everything; and make the right judgment.
  2. Apitishcha Bhavati: everything is resolved into him. He becomes one with Ishwara. All problems disappear into him.

Spiritual benefit: is developing skill for Vedantic meditation or Omkara meditation.

Take Away:

Omkara meditation: Meditating upon the letters of OM (AUM) and the corresponding universes will help in arriving at Turiyam. As the letters get resolved into silence, the three universes will get resolved into Turiyam in Vedantic meditation. This dhyanam is mentally resolving the entire universe into me, the consciousness. Chanting OM helps in visualizing the universe arising out of me. The silence following the chanting helps in visualizing the universe resolving into me. OM chanting is creation, its duration is sustenance, and the following silence is dissolution. Having chanted OM a few times, I remain silent with the knowledge that everything arises out of me and everything resolves into me.


With Best Wishes,


Ram Ramaswamy




Baghawat Geeta, Class 135: Chapter 10, Verses 24 to 27

Shloka # 24:

पुरोधसां मुख्यं मां विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम्
सेनानीनामहं स्कन्दः सरसामस्मि सागरः।।10.24।।

O son of Prtha, know me to be Brhaspati, the foremost among the priests of kings. Among commanders of armies I am Skanda; among large expanses of water I am the sea. 

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, I was in midst of narrating a story of Ganga Avatharanam in last class about how Bhagiratha brought Ganga from heaven to earth. He came to know from his father Amshuman that his ancestors were burnt to ashes by sage Kapila. He came to know that Ganga jalam could save their lives yet. So, he decided to bring Ganga to earth. Hence we call a person of great determination as Bhagiratha and such effort is called Bhagiratha Prayatnam.

The question soon came up if Ganga decided to descend to earth, who would receive the mighty fall of ganga on earth.  He learnt that only Shiva could receive ganga. So he had to perform tapas to Lord Shiva for 1000 years. Lord Shiva agreed to receive ganga; he also wanted to teach ganga a lesson for her arrogance. Finally ganga came down and Shiva received her in his jatas. After receiving her he covered his jata, thus Ganga was completely hidden. Then Shiva went back to his tapas. But this posed a problem for Bhagiratha as he had wanted ganga to flow down and bless his ancestors. Now with ganga caught in Shivas jata, this did not happen. So, Bhagiratha again performed tapas to Lord shiva. Then Lord shiva let a small stream of ganga to flow to earth. Symbolically Ganga Devi is considered Brahma Vidya coming out of Lords wisdom. It indicates the knowledge coming down to the earth from the Lord’s wisdom.

Now as ganga flowed on earth it passed through the hermitage of Rishi Janvi. The story says it flooded the hermitage. Rishi Janvi got upset at Ganga, so he drank ganga up. Again Bhagiratha’s goal was not accomplished. So, now he did tapas to Sage Janvi. Finally the sage relented and allowed ganga to flow from his ear. From Shiva, ganga came out of his forehead. Now she came out of the ears of Janvi. Symbolically Brahma Vidya is a Karna parampara, hence Ganga is also called Janvi. At last ganga came to patala and the 60,000 Sagaara’s were saved. The place where they were burnt is known as Kapilaranyam in patala and as per Kanchi Shankaracharya it later became California. Nearby there is also an island by name of Ash island supposedly representing ashes of Saagaras. That is why ocean is called sagara.

Based on this story Brthhari wrote a shloka. He says there are three types of people.

  • First type, manda purusha, who never undertake anything; they are afraid of failure; however,they declare they have never failed.
  • Madhyama purusha are ones who have courage to start but once they face obstacles or failures they withdraw,
  • Uttama Purusha are ones who try again and again until they get succeed like Bhagiratha. He is an ideal example of perseverance.

Shloka # 10.25:

महर्षीणां भृगुरहं गिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम्
यज्ञानां जपयज्ञोऽस्मि स्थावराणां हिमालयः।।10.25।।

Among the great sages I am Bhrgu; of words I am the single syllable (Om) [Om is the best because it is the name as well as the symbol of Brahman.]. Among rituals I am the ritual of Japa [Japa, muttering prayers-repeating passages from the Vedas, silently repeating names of deities, etc. Rituals often involve killing of animals. But Japa is free from such injury, and hence the best.] of the immovables, the Himalaya.

Among Maharsihi’s (Sapta Rishi’s) born from Brahma’s mind or manas putra’s, Brghu is the preeminent one. I am Brghu the greatest among them, says, Sri Krishna.

A story about Brghu is that he tested the Trimurti’s once to see who had most patience. Brahma lost his temper; Shiva also lost his temper; but Vishnu alone did not lose his temper.

Bhrgu and went and kicked Vishnu’s chest; and instead of getting angry, Vishnu asked Bhrgu, is your leg alright, is it paining; and they say because of that alone, Vishnu got the mark in his chest. Imagine if somebody should conduct an examination of Trimurthi themselves; certainly he must be greater; Therefore that Bhrgu, the great examiner, I am.

Among all monosyllable words I am Omkara. Why is it greatest? It is essence of entire Vedas. Taittiriya Upanishad says, just as butter is churned from milk similarly Brahmaji churned the Vedas to obtain Om, hence it is considered Veda Sara. It is the most efficacious of all mantras. It is used in all karma kanda mantras. All rituals start with the word Om. Omkara is an alambanam. Karma kanda, Upasana kanda and Vedanta, all start with Om.

Omkara Vichara is considered essence of entire creation  says Mandukya Upanishad. So we begin and end with Om. I am most sacred Omkara, says Sri Krsihna.

Ghiram means among words I am monosyllable Omkarara.

Among all types of spiritual sadhanas I am Japa Yagya. He chooses japa because, it can be practiced by all people, despite caste, creed and other differences. Thus only a Grihasta can chant agnihotri; a Kshatriya alone can perform Raja Suya Yagya; only people with sacred threads can perform other rituals.

Some Japas are Varna, ashrama, upasana, male, female etc., specific. Japa Yagya is one which can be chanted anywhere, at any time, in all conditions, by anyone; hence it is considered the greatest sadhana. Benefit of japa yagya is that there is no himsa involved as no sacrifice of an animal is done. Gautama Budha turned against Hinduism because he was against animal sacrifice. Japa Yagya has no Himsa. There is also no expenditure of money and things involved in japa yagya. It is also as efficacious as other rituals. Hence a Vedic person must perform at least one ritual of japa everyday.  So, japa is recommended by chanting god’s name at least 108 times. Japa obtains all sadhana chatushtaya sampathi’s.

In japa the first two letters ja indicates what janmavicchedaha; the end to the cycle of birth and death. And the next letter pa indicates papa nasha. Since this sadhana will remove all the papams and through that will put an end to the cycle of samsara; therefore japa is a great sadhana.

What is Japa?  It is recitation of sacred word. It is different from parayanam such as reading of Gita etc. In japa same word is repeated. So, Sri Krsihna says, among sadhanas, I am Japa.

Among mountains I am Himalaya, the abode of Shiva.

Shloka # 26:

अश्वत्थः सर्ववृक्षाणां देवर्षीणां नारदः
गन्धर्वाणां चित्ररथः सिद्धानां कपिलो मुनिः।।10.26।।

Among all trees (I am) the Asvatha (peepul), and Narada among the divine sages. Among the gandharvas [A class of demigods regarded as the musicians of gods.] (I am) Citraratha; among the perfected ones, the sage Kapila.

Among all trees I am Ashwatha tree, abode of the Trinity, says Sri Krishna. A pradarshanam of Ashwatha tree is considered a pradarshanm of Trinity. The root of tree symbolizes Brahmaji, Vishnu the trunk and the Shiva the top. In ch # 15 Ashwatha tree is shown as Samsara or bondage.

Among Deva Rishi’s, I am Narada. All puranas mention Narada. Even Chandogya Upanishad mentions Narada as disciple of Sanatkumara.  In Chandogya upanishad; Narada is the disciple of Sanath kumara. And Narada receives Brahma vidya from Sanatkumara and that teaching is a very famous one; and it is called bhuma vidhya; so in the seventh chapter of the Chandogya upanishad; brahman is called bhuma; Brahma vidya is called bhuma vidhya and that is received by Narada from Sanatkumara and therefore Narada is a great Gyani as well. He distributed knowledge to all people; Naram means knowledge; Da means Giver.

Among Gandharvas, citizens of heaven, or of Gandharva loka, one’s who know performing arts, I am king of Gandharvas, Chitraratha. In mahabaharta this gandharva raja appears.

Among great sidhas, people with extraordinary powers, I am Kapila. Miraculous powers and spiritual knowledge have no connections. There are four types of Sidhas:

  1. No self-knowledge with Sidhi.
  2. Self knowledge with no sidhi.
  3. Self knowledge with Sidhi.
  4. No self-knowledge with no sidhi.

Those who have Gyanam without Sidhi are liberated Gyani’s. Gyani with sidhi are also liberated. One’s without Gyanam are not Gyani’s. Kapila had both Gyanam and Sidhi. In Bhagavatha purana Kaplia is supposed to be one of the avatharas of Bhagavan; Kapilavathara is very well known in Bhagavatham.

He taught his mother Vedanta. There is another Kapila Rishi, a philosopher who propounded Sankhya philosophy. Here Sri Krishna is talking about Vedanta teacher Kapila.

A person can get Sidhi by several methods. They include:

  1. Money (precious stones etc.,)
  2. Aushadam (herbs),
  3. Mantras. With certain type of mantras you do purscaranam; What is purscaranam? You have to find out how many letters are there in the mantra; suppose Om Namashivaya; OM, Na, Ma, Si, Va, Ya; 6 letters; You have to multiply it with lakhs, that means 6 lakhs time minimum you have to chant; This is minimum. What is maximum? Multiply by crores; therefore five crores times, 12 crores times; then the potency of the mantra is released; like through nuclear fission or fusion; the energy within the atom is released, how much energy, it can destroy a Hiroshima or a nagasaaki. So much power is there in a small atom; similarly, every mantra has got tremendous potency, that potency is released by purscaranam of the mantra; through that also a person gets siddhis.
  4. Meditation by focusing mind called Yoga also gives Sidhi.
  5. Janma, by birth, also gives Sidhi. Purva punya and papam also can determine sidhi. Thus we see some people can withstand electric shock and some others can withstand acid burns.

Among Sidhas I am Kapila Muni, says Sri Krishna.

Kapila means yellow colored one.

Shloka 10. 27:

उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानां विद्धि माममृतोद्भवम्
ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणां नराणां नराधिपम्।।10.27।।

10.27 Among horses, know Me to be Uccaihsravas, born of nectar; Airavata among the lordly elephants; and among men, the Kind of men. [Uccaihsravas and Airavata are respectively the divine horse and elephant of Indra.]

In previous shloka I forgot to mention that Kapila is same one from Ganga avatharanam.

Now there is another story I wish to narrate. First we discussed ganga avatharanam. The second story is churning the milky ocean. Both teach fundamental lessons that perseverance is most important virtue in an individual. Failure should not deter you; it should trigger greater effort.

Gods and demons brought vasuki as the rope and they churned the ocean with Manthara parvatham as churning rod. There were differences of opinion as to who should hold the head of the snake. Once the churning rod went down and Lord Vishnu came in Tortoise form to lift and support the churning rod. A lot of things came out of the churn such as: Kaustubha, Lakshmi, Dhanvantari, Hala hala, the poison etc,. Symbolically the churning indicates Brahma Vidya and churning of our mind, as in Vedanta class. Mind is the kshira sagara and  white represents satva guna and satva guna represents the mind which is satvic and when you do the churning with the rod of scriptures, scriptural statements, varieties of things arrive.

Take away:

A Vedic person must perform at least one ritual of japa everyday.  So, japa is recommended by chanting god’s name at least 108 times. Through Japa, one obtains all sadhana chatushtaya sampathi’s.

Vedanta considers perseverance is a most important virtue in an individual. Failure should not deter you; it should trigger greater effort.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Baghawat Geeta, Class 134: Chapter 10, Verses 20 to 24

Shloka # 20:

अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः
अहमादिश्च मध्यं भूतानामन्त एव ।।10.20।।

O Gudakesa, I am the Self residing in the hearts of all beings, and I am the beginning and the middle as also the end of (all) beings.

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, Arjuna requested Sri Krishna to enumerate all his glories so that he can take anyone of them to meditate upon. He asked for a list so that he could choose as per his inclination. Sri Krishna enumerates the list from Shloka # 20 onwards.

First on the list of glories is Chaitanyam. It makes every being sentient. Without it, the body will be just jada shariram. It is the greatest glory. It is the only glory that is paramarthika while all others are vyavahrika or born out of Maya. If one has to approach god as nirguna vibhuti he has to have gyanam. So, this first glory requires Gyanam to know it.

And therefore first Lord Krishna enumerates paramarthika Vibhuthi and thereafter all Vyavaharika Vibhuthis as well.

He says, I am beginning, middle and end of all creation; I am the srishti, sthiti and laya karanam. Thus clay is the beginning, middle and end of all pots. It is clay alone at all stages. It is karanam that always exists in past, present and future.

So Sri Krishna says I am the cause of the creation; which existed in the beginning; and I am the sustaining principle of the creation; because of which alone the world enjoys existence; and I am the cause into which the world resolves.

Since god is only one permanently there, you should hold on to him. As, he alone can give you security. I am willing to love all people, but when asked who is my security, my answer will only be, God; not my son, friend etc. Anything else you will not have any assurance of security. So, hold on to Karanam, the Lord.

Shloka 21:

आदित्यानामहं विष्णुर्ज्योतिषां रविरंशुमान्
मरीचिर्मरुतामस्मि नक्षत्राणामहं शशी।।10.21।।

Among the Adityas [viz Dhata, Mitra, aryama, Rudra, Varuna, Surya, Bhaga, Vivasvan, Pusa, Savita, Tvasta and Visnu.-Tr.] I am Visnu; among the luminaries, the radiant sun; among the (forty-nine) Maruts [The seven groups of Maruts are Avaha, Pravaha, Vivaha, Paravaha, Udvaha, Samvaha and parivaha.-Tr.] I am Marici; among the stars I am the moon.

Sri Krishna enumerates various things and beings in universe. He says they are all my own manifestations. During enumeration some are laukika vibhuti’s, from this world, while others are from Puranas, including the Devatas.

Thus, Puranas talk of Adityas, the 12 faces of sun god; sun in the 12 months of the year; there is only one sun, but every month he feels different, hence the 12 sun gods.  33 main gods are enumerated. Thus, they are 12 adithyas,  8 Vasu’s,  11 rudras, Indra and Prajapati; all add up to 33. Karma kandis know these gods very well. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says these 33 gods are the ones that become 33 crore devatas.  So Sri Krishna says, among these 33 Devatas, I am Vishnu.  Adityas were born to aditi; And among them I am vishnu; because vishnu in vamana avathara was born as aditi puthra; and therefore I am vamana rupi vishnu among aditi puthras.  Among luminaries in sky, stars, planets, sun etc I am Ravi, the sun god with powerful rays. Sun god is adored even in sandhya vandanam. Even our survival is due to Sun.

In Ramayanam, Agastya rishi came and taught Aditya Hridayam mantra to Rama for both material victory as well as spiritual victory. Therefore aditya hridayam is a wonderful prayer for materialistic people; also for getting health; for getting money; for getting victory in examinations children can chant that; and for spiritual students as well it is supposed to be a wonderful prayer.  Hence, when sun rises, we say sun is coming to bless us. Hence they ask us to get up early as we are supposed to welcome him.

A group of devatas, in heaven, is known as Marut devatas. There are different colonies of devatas in heaven. Depending on our punyam we will go one such colony. Thus 49 Marutis are there, 7 each in 7 groups. They preside over the Vayu tatvam. Sri Krishna says I am Marichi among the maruti’s. I am the tender, cool breeze that you feel presided by Marichi devata.  Among night luminaries, stars, planets, moon etc, I am the moon or Chandra devata whom we worship on purnima day.

Shloka  # 22:

वेदानां सामवेदोऽस्मि देवानामस्मि वासवः
इन्द्रियाणां मनश्चास्मि भूतानामस्मि चेतना।।10.22।।

Among the Vedas I am Sama-veda; among the gods I am Indra. Among the organs I am the mind, and I am the intelligence in creatures.

Sri Krishna says, Among Vedas I am sama veda. Why choose Sama Veda? Because, it is the only musical veda, as such more attractive.

The word God is used in two contexts. One is the God, the creator. The other is gods who are really jivas occupying heavenly world due to their punyam. They are samsari’s, only with powers. Once their punyam is exhausted they will come back as humans or some other being.

So here, we are talking about only the superior jivas, because of their punya papam; and among their Gods, celestials, I am Vasavaha; meaning Indra devatha or Indra. He is controller of all devatas. He is a jiva as well. Once his punyam is over he will also have to take another birth.

Among sense organs I am the mind. Every sense organ can function only in a particular field. But mind is behind all sense organs; it can function in shabda, sparsha, rupa, rasa, and gandha. Hence mind is an ideal symbol. In Taittiriya Upanishad this topic is discussed. The more you think of mind the more you wonder about its capacity.

In every being I am its sentiency or Chetana. Scientists are still trying to find out what is life or death; it is all still a mystery to them. Even a small insect, you can see how sensitive it is; they have all systems that we have within them, while we can’t even create a unicellular organism. Hence emphasis on ahimsa paramo dharma; hence vegetarianism is promoted to avoid or reduce himsa. In eating vegetables, the plants are not killed.

Shloka # 23:

रुद्राणां शङ्करश्चास्मि वित्तेशो यक्षरक्षसाम्
वसूनां पावकश्चास्मि मेरुः शिखरिणामहम्।।10.23।।

Among the Rudras [Aja, Ekapada, Ahirbudhnya, Pinaki, Aparajita, Tryam-baka, Mahesvara, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Harana and Isvara. Different Puranas give different lists of eleven names.-Tr,] I am Sankara, and among the Yaksas and goblins I am Kubera [God of wealth. Yaksas are a class of demigods who attend on him and guard his wealth.]. Among the Vasus [According to the V.P. they are: Apa, dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Anala (Fire), Pratyusa and Prabhasa. The Mbh. and the Bh. given a different list.-Tr.] I am Fire, and among the mountains I am Meru.

12 Adityas were mentioned; hence surya namaskara is performed 12 times.   Now 11 Rudras are enumerated in the scriptures; and that is why when we have rudra ekadashini or eleven times chanting of Rudra is performed.  All of them are rudras. Among them I am Shankara; why shankara; because he is the most auspicious one. Mangalam means ananda. Rudra means one has removed dukha. Wherever Rudra parayanam is performed dukha goes away.  Another group of devatas are called Yaksha’s and Raksha’s. Among them I am Kubera; one who presides over wealth. In Badrinath, there is a place for Kubara and there is a belief that if you keep a coin in Kubera’s hand and keep that coin in your safe, it will multiply. He is lord of wealth and we don’t condemn wealth.   Then pavaka vasunam asmi; the next important group of devathas are ashta vasavaha. Vasus are eight, presiding over the eight directions; So among the ashta vasus, I am agni devatha; So pavaka is agni; agni is called pavaka because he is the greatest purifier; In the relative sense also; if you want to purify anything it has to be heated; including food.  If you have to remove all the impurities; say in water,  the best way is to boil the water; and the Surgeon, if they want to purify their instruments, is to boil in water; and if you have to dispose off the dead body, fire of cremation is the best method of purification; and so on.  So from  loukika point of view agni is the purifier;  From Shastric angle also agni purifies mind. So, I am the fire principle.

In the rig veda many mantras begins with chanting of Agni. Agni is very important for us; we start our day with lighting of lamp. Start our day because the outside light is the Sun. And not only that, when they light the lamp, they show to the sun; the idea is that the Sun is the celestial light which represents the Lord is invoked in the flame and I keep the flame in my house; And therefore flame is worshipped; agni is worshipped; and therefore Krishna says I am agni tatvam.

Among mountains with peaks I am Meru parvatam. This is descried in puranas. Some say Himalayas are Meru, others say it is in North pole, mountains. Others say it is an invisible mountain in heaven. Meru parikrama is recommended. One shastriji went to North pole in religious dress and did the a prikrama there. He even wrote a book in Tamil on his trip.

Shloka # 24:

पुरोधसां मुख्यं मां विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम्
सेनानीनामहं स्कन्दः सरसामस्मि सागरः।।10.24।।

O son of Prtha, know me to be Brhaspati, the foremost among the priests of kings. Among comanders of armies I am Skanda; among large expanses of water I am the sea.

Among purohitas, ritual priests both celestial and earthly ones; among celestial priests, I am Brihaspati, Indra’s pujari. He guides all rituals.

Among military commanders I am Skanda or Subramania. He was Deva senapati. Skanda was born from Shivas third eye to destroy demons.

Skanda means the one who flowed out; who emerged out of Lord’s Shiva’s third eye to destroy some

Rakshasa, who had extra ordinary strength. Lord Shiva had to bring a special avathara and out of Lord’s shakthi; skand means flow, to emerge out; to originate; from the third eye of Lord Shiva; third eye represents Gyanam and that is why Subramamya is Gyana Subramanya.

Among all water reservoirs I am sagara, the ocean. In Puranas there is a big story regarding this that I will mention briefly for you all:

In Ramayana Vishwamitra told a story about arrival of ganga from heaven to earth. There was a Raja named Sagara. He had 60,001 sons. They are called saagaraha. One of them was Asamanja. The king wanted to perform the ashwa medha Yaga. The horse went in front of the conquering army.

Indra got frightened of this Yaga, as he felt threatened. Indra stole the Yaga horse. All 60,000 sons went after Indra except Asamanja. Indra went underworld. Going after him they started digging and soon the hole was full of water and it became known as Sagara. They went to Patala Loka looking for Indra. The scared Indra wanted to hide the horse and run away. Sage Kapila was doing penance in Patala Loka at that time. Indra left the horse in the sage’s ashrama. The Saagara’s saw the horse there and  thought Kapila stole the horse. They shouted at Kapila. He got angry and cursed them all; due to the curse, they were all killed. The king sent asamanja to Sage Kapila. Asamanja met kapila. He told him if he brought ganga down to earth his brothers could be saved. He told this to his father. Father asked asamanja to bring ganga down. Asamanja prayed to ganga but failed to bring her down. Asamanja’s son ansuman also tried and failed. Ansuman ‘s son Bhagirathi did tapas to ganga and she agreed to come down. The question was if Ganga came down who would withstand her force of descent? It was determined that only Shiva can receive ganga by receiving her in his mat of hair. So he did tapas to shiva.

Take away:

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Baghawat Geeta, Class 133: Chapter 10, Verses 17 to 20

Shloka # 17:

कथं विद्यामहं योगिंस्त्वां सदा परिचिन्तयन्
केषु केषु भावेषु चिन्त्योऽसि भगवन्मया।।10.17।। 

O Yogi, [Here yoga stands for the results of yoga, viz omniscience, omnipotence, etc.; one possessed of these is a yogi. (See Comm. on 10.7)] how shall I know You by remaining ever-engaged in meditation? And through what objects, O Lord, are You to be meditated on by me?

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, in the first eleven shlokas of Vibhuti Yoga Sri Krishna talked about unique nature of god where he becomes the intelligent cause as well as material cause of creation.

Since the Lord is the intelligent cause of this creation, we come to know that the cause is chetana tatvam, because the intelligence cause should have intelligence and to have an intelligence it should be a sentient being, and therefore Lord being the intelligent cause, God has got the omniscience and also omnipotence or the skill, to create this universe.

But the second unique feature that Sri Krishna pointed out that God himself is the material cause also because of which we come to know that God has the potentiality to manifest as the very Universe. It is like a seed manifests as a tree.

And this first power of Omnipotence and the Omniscience is technically called Yogashakti and the manifestation of the Lord in the form of the creation is called Vibhuthi. And thus God is called yoga and vibhuthi; yoga referring to the Omniscience and Omnipotence by which He is the intelligent cause, and Vibhuthi means the potentiality or the capacity by which the Lord manifests as the manifold Universe.

This topic was also discussed in chapter # 10. Sri Krishna says there is no special effort needed to see God; whatever you are seeing is god alone. So when I am seeing a bangle; I am having svarna darshanam; When I seeing a chain, I am having svarna darshanam; when I am seeing a ring, I am having svarana darshanam, because svarna happens to be the material cause of all these three; extending the same principle, whatever effect in this creation I experience, whether it is akasha, agni or vayu; jalam or prithvi, I am having Ishvara darshanam; when I am seeing akasha, I am having Ishvara darshanam; whenever I am seeing vayu, whenever I am seeing agni as well. In fact I am at every time, in every place having Ishvara Darshanam. I am constantly having Ishvara darshanam only; if only I know this fact that Ishvara is the very substance behind this creation.   For a virat bhakta every place is a temple as he sees god everywhere. Thus, he is a devotee in every place. He is a devotee in all places at all times.

So this conversion of the temporary devotee into a permanent devotee is a very big transformation, which is result of vishva rupa appreciation.  And once I am a permanent devotee, then my very response to situations in life will be different. Naturally raga and dvesha will be heavily neutralized and therefore mental disturbances also will come down. In fact such a virat bhaktha will become sadhana chatushtaya sampannah, effortlessly. And once he has got that sadhana chatushtaya sampannah, he will have only one goal in life. It is to recognize the next higher stage of Ishvara, moving from virat Ishvara to nirguna Ishvara. To remind you, we have discussed before, ekarupa Isvara, aneka rupa Ishvara and arupa Ishvara. Both stages are very important transformations and not that easy to accomplish. Once first conversion is over from ekarupa bhaktha to aneka rupa bhaktha then to come to nirguna Gyanam is not easy; but Sri Krishna promises, “my assistance will be there; I will cooperate with you; I will make sure that his mind is a fit mind. And if guru is required, I will send one; if shastram sravanam is required, I will provide the opportunity; every thing I will do, until the nirguna Ishvara Gyanam takes place, which alone will give liberation.”   Thus Sri Krishna has completed his presentation of Eka rupa, Aneka rupa and Arupa rupa Bhakti.

And now Arjuna asks a question from shloka No.12 up to shloka No.18, which we are seeing now. Arjuna is interested in knowing more about Vishvarupa Isvara. Of course Sri Krishna has pointed out that everything in the creation is Bhagavan’s manifestation alone; Lord plus nama rupa is equal to creation; but even though everything is the manifestation of the Lord, certain things in the creation are more attractive to us than others.

Thus, both a baby elephant and a cockroach are both god’s manifestation. But we find a cockroach repulsive while we love a baby elephant. It is not surprising that Arjuna wants to hear about glorious, attractive things in creation be it from humans, flowers, animals etc. All have attractive things within their groups. Arjuna wants to know them so that he can focus on attractive things. He can use attractive object as a symbol of totality. Our eyes are limited in visualizing totality; so I take a finite symbol in meditation, just as we salute the flag for a country. Such a symbol is called alambanam. There are two types of alambanam.

Pratima almbanam: are figures representing gods such as Rama, Krishna etc.

Pratika alambanam: Shaligram, Shiva linga, Turmeric powder, flame of a lamp etc are examples of ways to visualize the abstract. Mother, Father, Guru, and Gyani are also used as alambanam.

So, Sri Krishna, give me a list. By this upasana I will see god everywhere. Citing an example, say I want to jump into a river. The right way to go into river is to first pray to the river god and then walk in. Same with eating food, we should first make it an offering to God then eat the food. This way we try to see god everywhere.

Shloka # 18:

विस्तरेणात्मनो योगं विभूतिं जनार्दन
भूयः कथय तृप्तिर्हि श्रृण्वतो नास्ति मेऽमृतम्।।10.18।।

O Janardana, narrate to me again [In addition to what has been said in the seventh and ninth chapters.] Your own yoga and (divine) manifestations elaborately. For, while hearing (Your) nectar-like (words), there is no satiety in me.

Arjuna glorified Sri Krishna before asking his favor. Sri Krishna is happy with the glorification. Arjuna asks, O Sri Krishna, constant petition receiver of people, Janaradana, may you enumerate your own Yoga Shakti to become the whole universe.

The mango seed has the potentiality to become only mango tree; it cannot become coconut tree; so also with milk it has the potentiality to give you only butter; but it cannot give you oil. Thus everything in the creation has a limited potential; we also have our own potential; but the greatness of Bhagavan’s potential is that he has the potentiality to become the whole cosmos.

Suppose you have potential to sing, how to know it?  From your singing I come to know your potential.   Therefore yoga is always anumeyam; inferred;

Bhagavan has got infinite power; how do I know this; because he has created this world; the world is the testimony; world is the signature of the Lord; so from the world I know Bhagavan’s yoga; which is nothing but the maya Shakti; yoga is nothing but the maya only;

Thus, Yoga Shakti also means Maya Shakti. Shankaracharya in his commentary says, Yoga here means it is a combination of three gunas; Satva, Rajas and Tamas; hence called yoga.

Vibhuti means when potential is expressed or manifested, it is known as vibhuti and also known as pratyaksham. Arjuna adds, “Please teach me elaborately as well.”

Now Sri Krishna may feel bad as he has already enumerated his glories before in Ch 7 and Ch 9. Keeping this in mind, Arjuna adds, I remember you have taught this before but I like to hear it once more. I am never bored listening to this topic of Ishwara Vibhuti which is amrutam. May you repeat the topic in detail.

Shloka # 19:

श्री भगवानुवाच

हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः
प्राधान्यतः कुरुश्रेष्ठ नास्त्यन्तो विस्तरस्य मे।।10.19।।

The Blessed Lord said O best of the Kurus, now, according to their importance, I shall described to you My own glories, which are indeed divine. There is no end to my manifestations.

Sri Krishna spoke:

With previous shloka Arjuna’s request is over. Now Sri Krishna accepts his request. Sri Krishna does not mind

talking about his own glory. After all, Vedanta is also about talking about God’s Self-alone. The word Hanta in shloka means Very well. So Sri Krishna says, very well, I shall enlist my glories that are extraordinary. Even ordinary things of god are extraordinary; they are laukika vibhuti and Sri Krishna says if I have to enumerate them; it would be endless and therefore I am only going to talk about; Divya Vibhuti; extra ordinary glories of Mine, which can serve as a symbol.

Thus, Taittiriya Upanishad describes each organ of body and their respective glories. Even organ of evacuation is glorified; we realize its glory when it does not work or works too much.

You should not take even your winking faculty for granted; that is yet another beautiful gift. In everything, I should see the glory; as everything is Bhagavan’s glory; but we are only going to take the extraordinary ones.

Even extraordinary glories are innumerable, so Sri Krishna says; I will choose a few of them as there is no limit to my glories as it consists of the whole universe.

Thus, O Arjuna, among the Kuru people you are also glorious and even you can become a symbol of meditation.

 Shloka # 20:

अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः
अहमादिश्च मध्यं भूतानामन्त एव ।।10.20।।

O Gudakesa, I am the Self residing in the hearts of all beings, and I am the beginning and the middle as also the end of (all) beings.

The list begins with this shloka and continues till Shloka # 38. He wants to first talk of Nirguna Brahman. Sri Krishna wants to first talk about the Vibhuthi of Bhagavan as Nirgunam brahma, which is the subtlest and which is the highest order of reality.

Chaitanyam is the fundamental glory of God as it makes every living being alive. I am Chaitanya swarupam. So mediation should be on,“ I am alive”. This also indicates respect for life. This also leads to Ahimsa Paramo Dhrama.

Because I see every living being as endowed with God’s gift of life and therefore I revere life. Therefore my aim is to avoid himsa; or at least minimize himsa; even non-vegetarianism is condemned; and vegetarianism is glorified because of the fundamental principle of reverence for any form of life. Therefore first glory is chaitanyam.

Nirguna Ishwara Vibhuti is the very existence principle. Thus when we say the chair is or pen is, the “is ness” is borrowed from material cause. The effect exists borrowing from cause. Cause is manifesting in effect as very existence or “is ness”. Thus, God being cause and world being effect, God is the “is ness”. When creation resolves, existence goes back to God.

Citing an example, an effect exists only by borrowing existence from the cause, an effect does not have its own existence; If an effect has got its own existence; then cause will be sitting there; thus, gold will be sitting there separately as will the bangle, which does not happen. Reality is wherever bangle is; gold must be there as well, because the very Is_ness of the bangle is the blessing of gold.

Similarly, Bhagavan being the cause, world being the effect, it is Bhagavan manifesting in the world as the very existence.

So the two main glories of Bhagavan are Chidrupa Vibhuthi; and Sat rupa Vibhuthi; so Sri Krishna starts with chid rupa Vibhthi in shloka No.20 and He concludes with sadrupa Vibhuthi in shloka No.39. So best form of meditation is sat chid rupam, to see Lord everywhere.

Usually when these two glories are talked about it is difficult to comprehend them. So, Sri Krishna now comes to concrete objects.

He says, O Gudakesha, for you who are a sharp student the ideal meditation will be the consciousness which we have described often before. Do you remember the description of consciousness? Consciousness is not a part; property or product of the body, consciousness is an independent entity pervading the body and enlivening the body; consciousness is not limited by the boundaries of the body, and consciousness survives even when the body dissolves. On such an abstract-formless-colorless-dimensionless-consciousness, I hope you can meditate upon.

And that is why I am giving you the title of gudakesha, means satvik one;( gudaka means tamo guna; or nidra; or a dull of intellect; isa means the master; the one who has conquered the dullness or tamo guna; which means the one who is satvik in nature; And therefore Arjuna, you look upon Me as the very consciousness.

And where is this consciousness? It is there in the mind of every living being; means abiding, indwelling, residing; even in animals and plants; therefore, in my mind also Bhagavan is there in the form of atma, the witness consciousness. This witness consciousness witnesses the presence of thoughts, as well as the absence of thoughts. When I say I have thoughts, I am aware of my thoughts; and when you say my mind is blank, the awareness of blankness is also because of that chaitanyam. That very chaitanyam I am; so; so this is Chidrupa Vibhuthi.

Take away:

In this chapter one more method is given to us as to how to seek God. The best form of meditation is to see god in everything, including all beings.  This witness consciousness, Chaitanyam, witnesses the presence of thoughts as well as the absence of thoughts.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Baghawat Geeta, Class 132: Chapter 10, Verses 12 to 17

Shloka # 12:

अर्जुन उवाच
परं ब्रह्म परं धाम पवित्रं परमं भवान्
पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यमादिदेवमजं विभुम्।।10.12।।

Arjuna said You are the supreme Brahman, the supreme Light, the supreme Sanctifier. All the sages as also the divine sage Narada, Asita, Devala and Vyasa [Although Narada and the other sages are already mentioned by the words ‘all the sages’, still they are named separately because of their eminence. Asita is the father of Devala.] call You the eternal divine Person, the Primal God, the Birthless, the Omnipresent; and You Yourself verily tell me (so).

Continuing his teaching Swamiji said, Sri Krishna has given us the essence of Vibhuti Yoga in the first eleven shlokas that we have covered. Main points discussed were: Lord is the material cause of the universe, by which the Lord meant that Bhagavan alone is manifesting as the universe. This is because the material cause alone expresses as the product. And by which Sri Krishna indirectly points out that there is no thing called world; there is no substance called world; because there is no product at all, substantial, separate from the cause. Cause alone is the only substance, effect is nothing but name and rope; name and form added to the cause; which means since the world is a product of the Lord which has emerged from the Lord, Lord is the only substance and appearing as the world with varieties of name rope.

 Appreciating the world as manifestation of God is vishwarupam or virat rupam. In Vishwa rupam Lord’s body is the universal world. Virat rupam is where Lord appears in his manifold forms. Thus, gold can be called as virat as it appears as bangle, ring and chain. So also god appears as Akasha, Vayu, Agni etc. One who appreciates this fact is virat bhakta. For him a special temple is not required to express his bhakti; his bhakti is always with god, in his mind, everywhere. Such a person is known as nithya yuktaha. For such a bhakta, Nirguna Brahma Gyanam is a lot closer.

For those people who are worshipping personal God, nirguna gyanam is farther. From personal God, one cannot reach nirgunam Brahma, there is an intermediary step and it is learning to appreciate the universe, as the manifestation of the Lord; which means I have got to have an expanded mind.

Only such a mind can discover that substratum of entire universe. Lord says, for a Virat Bhakta I will provide all help in attaining nirguna gyanam. Thus all three visions of Eka Rupa, Aneka Rupa and Arupa bhakti have been discussed in first eleven shlokas.

However, Arjuna wants an enumeration of god’s glories. From shloka # 12 to # 18 is the presentation of Arjuna’s request to Sri Krishna. He wants an exhaustive enumeration of God’s glories. Before asking a favor he starts with praise. The mantra Rudram for Lord Shiva also starts with a praise to make Shiva happy and then it presents God with a list of demands that comes in the Chamakam section of the mantra. Chamakam is chanted fast so that God does not get bored with the list of demands. After a shruti then one asks for boons. Arjuna also does the same with Sri Krishna. He says you are supreme Brahman, Param Dhama, the consciousness priniciple; Param pavitram the scared principle; You are the Ananda swarupam which is why you are scared.

Shloka # 12: Second line of shloka:

Arjuna is not sure of nirguna Brahman as he has not experienced it. He says, great people declare that you are indweller of every living being; you are the sentiency of all organs of body; Pursuha shasvatha: You are eternal indweller of the human body; Divyam: You are chetana tatvam; body and mind are inert by nature; they function due to chaitanyam, that is You, the self evident consciousness; Adi Daivam:  You are primal god from whom other gods have arisen. You are one who was never born, you are fatherless; Vibhum: You are located everywhere.

Shoka # 13:

आहुस्त्वामृषयः सर्वे देवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा
असितो देवलो व्यासः स्वयं चैव ब्रवीषि मे।।10.13।।

Arjuna said You are the supreme Brahman, the supreme Light, the supreme Sanctifier. All the sages as also the divine sage Narada, Asita, Devala and Vyasa [Although Narada and the other sages are already mentioned by the words ‘all the sages’, still they are named separately because of their eminence. Asita is the father of Devala.] call You the eternal divine Person, the Primal God, the Birthless, the Omnipresent; and You Yourself verily tell me (so).

Arjuna says he gathered all this information from scriptures as declared by Rishi’s. A Rishi here means a Gyani. A rishi can even be a Grahasta Gyani. They declare as in shloka # 12: the Rishis of heaven, Deva Rishi’s, also said the same. One such Rishi was Narada, who spreads his knowledge while traveling. Other sages such as Ashita, Devala, Vyasa, all say the same as well. You also have declared as much, so and I have full shradha in you; you will never mislead me. Therefore, You are Brahman, you are param brahma param dhama pavithram, etc.

Shloka # 14:

सर्वमेतदृतं मन्ये यन्मां वदसि केशव
हि ते भगवन् व्यक्ितं विदुर्देवा दानवाः।।10.14।।

O Kesava, I accept to be true all this which You tell me. Certainly, O Lord, neither the gods nor the demons comprehend Your glory.

Arjuna says, whatever glories have been enumerated I accept them as true. In the shloka Rtam means stayam. I cant cross check your teachings as local people don’t know your glory. Even gods (Indra, varuna etc) don’t know your glory.

And this we have seen in Kenopanishad when devas were celebrating victory over asuras, Lord wanted to reveal their limitations; therefore appeared in a mysterious Yaksha form and all the devas could not know even who that Yaksha is; and we saw in the story; Vayu went and got humiliated; Agni went and got humiliated; Indra went and the Yaksha itself disappeared; and all of them understood that we all have our own intellectual limitations. And thereafter Indra becomes humble and surrenders; I can never know the truth with the help of the limited intellect, because our intellects are meant to know only the finite thing, existing within time and space.

How to know truth beyond time and space? How can asuras know as well? So, who knows your glory? Only you know your glory. So, please describe your glories.

Shloka # 15:

स्वयमेवात्मनाऽत्मानं वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम
भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते।।10.15।।

O supreme Person, the Creator of beings, the Lord of beings, God of gods, the Lord of the worlds, You Yourself alone know Yourself by Yourself.

Here interestingly Arjuna is increasing the number of names and forms of God; such as purushottama, jagatpate, bhuta bhavana etc. all these names are used to reveal god’s glories.

Purushottama is a technical word; which will be explained in the 15th chapter, wherein Krishna divides the entire universe into three: kshara purusha; akshara purusha and uttama purusha.

Kshara purusha means manifest matter; or matter,

Akshara purusha is unmanifest matter or energy, and

Uttama purusha is the consciousness principle.

Thus the whole universe consists of only three; matter in tangible form; matter in intangible form, and the consciousness, which is different from both tangible and intangible matter. Tangible matter is called kshara purusha; intangible matter; Energy is intangible matter and is Akshara Purusha; and the consciousness is called Uttama Purusha; and Uttama Purusha reversed is Purushottama; Purushottama means the pure consciousness which is beyond matter.

And Oh Lord! you are not the physical body that I am seeing; your body is an incidental vesha; but the real You is nothing but pure consciousness; Oh

Purushottama you are chaitanya svarupa and chid rupa.

Bhutabhavana: means creator of entire universe of things; Creator of all. You are the consciousness principle from which the entire universe evolves.

Bhutesha: Controller of world. Omni potent one cannot only create but it can manage it as well.

Devadeva: Lord of all devatas; of all natural laws. Katho Upanishad says devatas function purely due to your control alone.

Jagat Pathe:  jagat pathi means the protector of the world from those people who try to destroy the world:

Whenever there is a threat to this world, you yourselves find out methods of protecting this world; therefore jagatpate.

You alone know yourself completely; others don’t.

And how did you come to know; who was your guru. If Lord requires another guru; then the next question will be who is his guru. Therefore Arjuna says you know, not because of any guru, but you know by yourselves. So Lord was never ignorant to become a gyani. All the other people were agyanis; were born agyanis and they struggle, went to a guru; and studied repeatedly and at last somehow they become gyanis; but in the case of Lord; he never became gyani. So you are Sarvajnaha. Therefore you know yourselves by yourselves; and therefore you are the best person; tell me the details.

Shloka # 16:

वक्तुमर्हस्यशेषेण दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः
याभिर्विभूतिभिर्लोकानिमांस्त्वं व्याप्य तिष्ठसि।।10.16।।

Be pleased to speak in full of Your own manifestations which are indeed divine, through which manifestations You exist pervading these worlds.

Upto shloka # 15 it was glorification of God. Now Arjuna starts asking favors. He asks Sri Krishna humbly, to teach him all his glories and manifestations, his extraordinary glories.

Even walking is a glory; you realize it when you see a handicapped person. Citing a story, a man said he was very poor. He was taken to an organ transfer center. There every organ had a price and when he calculated he had between Rs 15 lacs and 20 lacs worth organs. You are a rich man. You are the richest man in the world; but we take the organs for granted because from birth it is there; and it is all money.

Arjuna asks the favor, I want you to enumerate the extraordinary glories with which you pervade the universe. Why does he ask this favor?

Shloka # 17:

कथं विद्यामहं योगिंस्त्वां सदा परिचिन्तयन्
केषु केषु भावेषु चिन्त्योऽसि भगवन्मया।।10.17।।

O Yogi, [Here yoga stands for the results of yoga, viz omniscience, omnipotence, etc.; one possessed of these is a yogi. (See Comm. on 10.7)] how shall I know You by remaining ever-engaged in meditation? And through what objects, O Lord, are You to be meditated on by me?

Arjuna says I want this list of glories so that I can meditate on some of them. Every glorius object becomes an alambanam of god.

When we worship everything, in our culture, it means we worship god; thus, when we worship anything, we do not worship the thing by itself; but the thing symbolizes the Lord behind it, whether we worship the Sun, or moon, or trees or snake or river, each one becomes a pratheekam.

I can invoke you on one any one of the glorius objects and meditate. This is virat meditation on a symbol such as say a cow; the cow has many devatas in it and as such it is virat.

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad starts with worship of a horse; here one sees totality of all organs in the horse. Benefit of virat upasana by vishwa rupa visualization is  that, I will come to know your higher nature. Even in sandhya vandanam we invoke god in water. Water is a glorius thing in creation. You see all gods, animals, and insects in that water. I invoke grace of God in that water. By doing this I will come to know your higher nature, arupa Ishwara, Nirguna Brahman. Nirguna gyanam is ultimate gyanam. And therefore Arjuna says, by meditating or visualizing the viswarupa in any glorious object, I will be able to come to nirgunam jnanam later; therefore give me a list.

And other people criticize saying Hinduism is confusing; we say for them alone this is a disadvantage. They have no form or one form; whether you like or not; you have to worship that. But in Hinduism you can take any form; and the Lord and prepare your mind and come to gain that knowledge and be free.

Take away:

Since the world is a product of the Lord, which has emerged from the Lord, Lord is the only substance and appearing as the world with varieties of name rope.

The whole universe consists of only three; matter in tangible form; matter in intangible form, and the consciousness, which is different from both tangible and intangible matter.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy