Mandukya Upanishad, Class 22

Karikas 7:

सप्रयोजनता तेषां स्वप्ने विप्रतिपद्यते  
तस्मादाद्यन्तवत्वेन मिथ्यैव खलु ते स्मृताः

That the objects of the waking state can serve our purpose in life is contradicted in dream state experiences. Therefore, they are undoubtedly illusory on account of their-both waking and dream-having a beginning and an end.

Karika # 8:

अपूर्वं स्थानिधर्मो हि यथा स्वर्गनिवासिनाम्
तानयं प्रेक्षते गत्वा यथैवेह सुशिक्षितः

The objects (perceived by the dreamer), not usually met with {in the waking state) undoubtedly, owe their existence to the (peculiar) condition in which the cognizer, that is, his mind, works for the time being, as in the case of those residing in heaven. The dreamer associating himself (with the dream conditions) experiences those (objects), even as the one, well-instructed here (goes from one place to another and sees objects belonging to those places).

After establishing unreality of Swapna Prapancha in first three karikas then in karikas 4, 5 and 6 it is established that Jagrat prapancha is also mithya. Gaudapada gave reasons as to why Jagrat prapancha is Mithya, as did Shankaracharya, separately, in his commentaries.

In karika # 6, Gaudapada said, whatever is impermanent is unreal while whatever is permanent is real. Swapna prapancha and jagrat prapancha both are finite as such unreal.

Shnakaracharya said object of experience is always mithya. Whatever is an object of experience depends on subject. Without subject, object cannot be proved to exist hence it is mithya.

In Karika # 8, we did make a change in sequence of Karikas to better address continuity of theme; here a questioner was asking as to why we can’t take swapna prapancha as reality. Gaudapada refutes it by saying that whether dream is unique or not, dream depends upon the observer for its existence. Since the unique dream object depends on the dream observer, it does not have independent existence of its own and therefore it must be understood as mithya. There is no objective world existing. Ordinary and extraordinary all are dependent on subject.

In Karika # 7 another questioner says he agrees that swapna parapancha is unreal; but he says, I cannot accept Jagrat parapancha is unreal. His contention is as follows:

He disagrees with the definition that, “Whatever is impermanent or an object, is mithya.”

He wants to give a changed definition wherein Swapna parapancha is shown as unreal while Jagrat prapancha is shown as real. He now suggests four definitions, in each of which, Swapna parapancha is shown as unreal while Jagrat prapancha shown as real.

Gaudapada refutes each definition. He says, you have to accept both as unreal or both as real; the idea that one is real while other is unreal will not work. We are working to define absolute reality, while you are defining relative reality or mithya, says Gaudapada.

In karika # 7, the first definition says that utility is a criterion; thus, whatever is useful is real. Therefore, since swapna is useless, it is unreal. Questioner says, I can’t use the earning from dream state, but earnings from Jagrat avastha I can use.

Guadapada, refuting the definition says, utility of jagrat prapancha is only a relative utility. It is useful only in jagrat avastha, only useful from point of view of jagrat shariram; it is useless in swapna. No food from waking state will be useful to satiate hunger in a dream.

Furthermore, Gaudapada says, it is wrong to state that Swapna prapancha is useless; it is relatively useful in swapna avastha while it maybe useless in jagrat avatha.

Guadapada says both are real in a relative manner.

So utility is for jagrat shariram in jagrat avastha only. Similarly, Utility is for Swapna shariram in Swapna avastha. But when I shift identification it is contradicted. Thus, when I shift from swapna to jagrat the earnings are of no use. Similarly when I shift from Jagrat avastha to Turiya, (consciousness), the earnings are also useless in Turiyam state. He says impermanence is only criterion for unreality.

Karika # 9 and 10:

स्वप्नवृत्तावपि त्वन्तश्चेतसा कल्पितं त्वसत्
बहिश्चेतोगृहीतं सद्दृष्टं वैतथ्यमेतयोः
जाग्रद्वृत्तावपि त्वन्तश्चेतसा कल्पितं त्वसत्
बहिश्चेतो गृहीतं सद्युक्तं वैतथ्यमेतयोः १०

In dream, also, what is imagined within by the mind is illusory and what is cognized outside (by the mind) appears to be real. But (in truth) both these are known to be unreal. Similarly, in the waking state, also, what is imagined within by the mind is illusory; and what is experienced outside (by the mind) appears to be real. But in fact, both should be rationally held to be unreal.

Karika # 9:

Here the questioner suggests a second, definition that proves that Swapna prapancha is unreal while Jagrat prapancha is real. He says Swapna parapancha is unreal because it is a mental projection. Dream world is within my mind as a projection, hence unreal, while Jagrat parapancha is outside me. I experience everything outside me; the desk, the people, the hall, etc; it is not a mental projection. What is within is unreal while whatever is external in reality. Whatever is external is real and whatever is internal is mithya. Externality is the criterion for reality and internality is the criterion for unreality. He suggests dream world is unreal while this world is real.

Gaudapada says: you say swapna prapancha is inside; word inside is a relative one. If asked the question, are all of you inside or outside, what will be your answer? You will probably never answer; rather you will ask, inside of what? If I say it is about this stage where I am sitting, the answer will be it is outside. So one needs to know inside or outside of what? From which stand point? From waker’s stand point it is outside. But in dream, you are performing all transactions with dream body, while waker’s body is lying on bed. From dream body point of view, the dream world is outside of it; I don’t even know I am dreaming; dream itself is only from waker’s point of view.

Now suppose you wake up and your reference point changes. From waker’s point of view Swapna parapancha is within. The same is story of Jagrat prapancha as well. Once you look at Jagrat prapancha from Jagrat body point of view it is outside hence real. But if you wake up from Jagrat prapancha to Chaitanyam, from point of view of Chaitanyam, Jagrat prapancha is also within. So, when you the change point of reference it becomes unreal; so it is a relative truth or mithya.

Karika # 10:

Suppose a person is in dream state, how to prove it is not dream until you wake up? In swapna prapancha also you talk of a world external to dream body, that you take it as real; thus you see a dream book, train, tiger etc; and they are all real. Say, in your dream (dream # 1) you go to bed and you see another dream (dream # 2). Here, per your definition, dream # 2 is unreal while dream # 1 is real. Then you wake up and both dreams # 1 and # 2 are falsified.

Gaudapada says in dream # 1 you have a dream (dream # 2), when you wake up you are in dream #1. When you wake up you are in Jagrat parapancha. He says Jagrat prapancha is also a dream, the dream # 3. Each dream was real at that time, but once you woke up it was proved as unreal.

If so, when will you have final waking up? As long as you are shifting from one object to another, as all objects are only relatively real, for that particular subject, there is no final waking up. Ultimate reality is only when you arrive at “object less- subject” or Turiyam state.

In jagrat prapancha also whatever is seen externally is real and mental projection is unreal. But in Turiyam state, jagrat prapancha becomes dream # 3; so jagrat prapancha is also mithya. So externality as criterion of reality is incorrect. Hence second definition is ruled out. First definition of utility was also shown as unreal.

Karika # 14:

चित्तकाला हि येऽन्तस्तु द्वयकालाश्च ये बहिः
कल्पिता एव ते सर्वे विशेषो नान्यहेतुकः १४

Those that are cognized within only as long as the thought of them lasts, as well as those that are the senses and that conform to two points of time, are all mere imaginations. There is no other ground for differentiating the one from the other.

Swamiji jumped to karika # 14 from karika # 10 for the third definition. He said he is rearranging karikas for purpose of continuity.

In karika # 14, the questioner suggests a third definition of reality that says Jagrat prapancha is real while Swapna parapancha is unreal; he says whatever has an objective existence is real while whatever has subjective existence is unreal.

Elaboration of questioner’s position:

Subjective existence means dependent on Me as long as I see it.

Objective existence means, it exists, whether I see it or not.

My house, my car, all I know exist. So, does my car exist outside? Car exists even when I don’t see it. Whether I experience it or not, it exists. Object exists independent of me.

In dream, I see, I am saving a drowning person; just as I am about to bring him out, I wake up. Did he fall back in the well? But now, in the waking state, I am not worried about it anymore. You know he existed only in dream. So Swapna prapancha was subjective existence; it did not have a continued existence. Hence dream is unreal, as it has no objective existence Thus, objectivity is criterion for reality. Subjective existence is criterion for unreality.

Gaudapada’s rebuttal:

Gaudapada says this definition will not work. In dream you attend a class and you have parked the car. This swapna world, the dream, it is not just a projection of mind; it is a real world for the dreamer. Only on waking, Swapna Prapancha becomes unreal. Similarly, Jagrat prapancha is also unreal from Chaitanyam state’s point of view.

So, object within you, in dream, have only a subjective existence, hence unreal. Whatever is outside is from dreamer’s stand point of view. Upon waking, internal world and external world, both in dream state, are proven as unreal. So, these internal external distinctions have nothing to do with reality. Both are falsified upon waking. In a similar manner Jagrat parapancha is also unreal once you wake up in Chaitanyam.

Hence the hypothesis that states objective existence is real and subjective existence is unreal does not have any merit.

Karika  15:

अव्यक्ता एव येऽन्तस्तु स्फुटा एव ये बहिः  
कल्पिता एव ते सर्वे विशेषस्त्विन्द्रियान्तरे १५

(Things) which are (experienced) within are not clear. (Things) which are (experienced) outside are clear. All of them are projected only. The distinction is due to a different sense organ.

The questioner poses his fourth definition. He says whatever is clearly experienced is real. Thus clarity of experience is real. Vagueness of experience indicates it is unreal. Everybody dreams. Some remember the dream and some do not. Even when you remember, it is vague; hence it is unreal.

Jagrat prapancha meanwhile is clear; hence it is real.

Gaudapada says this is a relative definition only. He says clarity depends on instrument used. The way you see depends on your organ of sight. With different set of organs, you will see differently. Some animals are color blind. If I have the sense organs of a dog, I will see everything vastly differently. If I have sense organs that can see at atomic level, I will see everything as atoms.

Dream world is very clear with dream sense organs; it becomes vague only with waker’s sense organs.

If I should only have four sense organs, say like a blind person, the world of color will not exist for me. Imagine a person with a sixth sense organ; he will see world very differently as it depends on all sense organs. Hence world is only a relative reality.

So, he says, that which is within us, in Swapna Prapancha, is vague, where as external world for dreamer is very clear, hence real, as long as dream continues. On waking up, the outside world becomes unreal.

Clarity and non-clarity depend on organs one uses. World of human beings is different from that of animals. Even world of man is different from that of a woman.

Take Away:

If so, when will you have final waking up? Ultimate reality is only when you arrive at “object less- subject” or Turiyam state.

Dream itself is only from waker’s point of view.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy


Baghawad Geeta, Class 143: Chapter 11, Verses 7 to 13

Shloka 11. 7:

इहैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं पश्याद्य सचराचरम्
मम देहे गुडाकेश यच्चान्यद्द्रष्टुमिच्छसि।।11.7।।

See now, O gudakesa, O Gudakesa (Arjuna), the entire Universe together with the moving and the non-moving, concentrated at the same place here in My body, as also whatever else you would like to see.

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, Arjuna asked for Vishwa Rupa darshanam. This darshanam involves two set of eyes; first the laukika chakshu and second the divya chakshu; Divya chakshu here means a purified mind, a mature mind, an informed mind, a religious

mind, also equally important a second invisible eye; which is figuratively presented as the third eye and in the Gita 11th chapter it is called divya chakshu. When both eyes, our normal vision combines with a pure mind, only then Vishwa rupa darshanam is possible.

Citing some examples, Swamiji says, even though Lord Rama was available to both Shabari and Ravana, Shabari got her darshanam as she had performed sadhanas for a very long time; however, even though Ravana saw Rama he did not see the divine in him, as he was not prepared with a pure mind. Lord’s universal form is available to all of us, all the time; even so we don’t feel its impact; hence most of us don’t get the Vishwa rupa darshanam. So the defect is not in my normal vision but in my refined mind (divya chakshu). The refined mind has to be free of kama, krodha, raga, dvesha, ahamkara and mamakara.    

So, Arjuna, Vishwa rupa darshanam is easiest as it is always in front of you. So, I, as the akasha, having the akasha as the body, am available in front of you and the whole creation is my shariram alone; you can see the Vishva rupa right in front of you; O Gudakesha. Gudakseha means satva guna pradhana. Arjuna you can; it only requires some refinement, it is possible for you.

This vision includes all moving and nonmoving objects that consist of the body of the Lord. Not only can you see all this but you can see anything else you wish to see as well. So, Sri Krishna offers to cooperate with Arjuna in giving him this darshanam.

Shloka 11.8:

तु मां शक्यसे द्रष्टुमनेनैव स्वचक्षुषा
दिव्यं ददामि ते चक्षुः पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम्।।11.8।।

But you are not able to see Me merely with this eye of yours. I grant you the supernatural eye; bhold My divine Yoga.

Sri Krishna introduces the requirement for two types of eyes. He says, you can’t have Vishwa rupa darshanm with laukika eyes alone; you need the second invisible Divya Chakshu as well. Some people say even the Tilakam is symbolic of a third eye, of a prepared mind also known as Bhavana Chakshu.

Imagine a tourist taking pictures in a Hindu temple.  He may see the antiquity, the age of statues etc but he will not perform namaskaram to the idols, as he is not imbued with a sense of the divine in them. It is in our culture that we see the divine even in a stone idol due to our attitude.

When Vibhuti comes we apply it on our forehead. Ash itself is worth nothing; it is our attitude, however, that makes it the Vibhuti. And what is that ash worth; its worth can be seen only by Divya chakshu; and therefore Sri Krishna says Vishva rupa darshanam requires divya chakshu; to do namaskaram, to revere, requires divya cakshu; to do the prokshanam of the river water requires Divya Chakshu; without that it is not possible and Arjuna I shall bless you with that divya chakshu.

And once that attitudinal change comes, you see my divine glory. Thus, even pancha maha bhuthas Become Lord Shiva; thus akashalinga is worshipped in Chidambaram, vayu lingam is worshipped in Kalahasthi; agni lingam in Thiruvannamalai, water becomes God as in Jambukesvaram, and earth becomes God as in Kancheepuram. And initially you worship the panchabhuthas, only in those respective temples, but that is not enough; later I should see the same divinity in the pancha bhuthas all over; and the day I can revere the pancha bhuthas, then the products of the pancha bhutas, they too all become divine for me.

I can no more go away from God, as everything is god as without god it is only maya.

Now there is silence as Sri Krishna blesses Arjuna with divya chakshu. So now Sanjaya comes and fills up the silent time. So, now Sanjaya speaks.

Shloka 11.9:

सञ्जय उवाच

एवमुक्त्वा ततो राजन्महायोगेश्वरो हरिः
दर्शयामास पार्थाय परमं रूपमैश्वरम्।।11.9।।

Sanjaya said O King, having spoken thus, thereafter, Hari [Hari: destroyer of ignorance along with its conseences.] (Krsna) the great Master of Yoga, showed to the son of Prtha the supreme divine form:

Sanjaya spoke:

O King (dhritrashtra), Sri Krishna (hari) addressed Arjuna. Krishna here is Vishnu or Hari. Hari means one who absorbs all papams from devotees mind. Maha Yogeshwara means one who can purify. Normally purification is a long process consisting of practicing Pancha Maha Yagna’s. Here, Sri Krishna gives this temporary purification of mind to Arjuna.

Hari addressed Arjuna as in previous shloka saying you need, both, Laukika chakshu and Divya chakshu. Thereafter, Sri Krishna showed Arjuna the Vishwa Rupam, the greatest rupam. Why is it the greatest rupam? All other rupams are finite and mutually exclusive (one displaces the other) and are subject to arrival and departure,

Whereas Vishva rupa is the most unique one, because it is all pervading and secondly it need not exclude any form; Vishva rupa includes Rama rupam, includes Krishna rupam, Shiva rupam; all the possible rupams are included in Vishva rupam; therefore it is all inclusive; and finally, since Vishva rupam is right in front of me, it can neither arrive nor depart.

Even sandhyavandanam addresses it as we do namaskara to top, bottom, east, west etc. So we do namaskara to god everywhere; for us Bhagavan being everywhere, I do namaskaram all over. These are all the training given right from our young age. In fact, all our trainings are meant for seeing the world itself as God. This is the culmination in vyavaharika Ishvara darshanam; not paramarthikam, vyavaharika Ishvara darshanam; is the relative appreciation of Lord; the highest vision is to learn to see the very universe as the Lord; so our culture is oriented towards giving us this Vishwa Rupa Darshanam.

Shloka 11.10

अनेकदिव्याभरणं दिव्यानेकोद्यतायुधम्।।11.10।।

Having many faces and eyes, possessing many wonderful sights, adorned with numerous celestial ornaments, holding many uplifted heavenly weapons;

So we get Sanjaya’s description of Vishva rupa; Sanjaya describes and from this we come to know that Sanjaya is also getting Vishva rupa darshanam. He also sees by association the many faces, and many mouths; many eyes; how are we to understand the Lord with many eyes; does it mean that eyes are sticking all over; and if mouths are all over, how eyes will be all over; therefore do not imagine a form with countless eyes and ears; Arjuna learns to see all the mouths of all the people as the mouth of the Lord. There is no more it is my mouth; that is called ahamkara.

When I myself am not there; there is no individual separate from totality; There is no Tamil Nadu; separate from India; there is no wave separate

from ocean; there is no vyasti separate from samashti. When the egoist “I” do not exist anymore where is the question of saying my mouth, my eyes; my land etc.

As somebody said, it is better to have a heart without words rather than words without heart behind it.  And therefore that bhavana is important; all the mouths are Bhagavan’s mouth; all the eyes are Bhagavan’s eyes Innumerable wonders, all of them belong to God. Lord is wearing many ornaments; all ornaments in universe are god’s abharanam. In our culture, before wearing an ornament it is placed in front of Lord. I am only taking it on lease. I will use it without claiming ownership or mamakara is the spirit behind it.

Lord with countless weapons in his raised hands. Sanjaya mentions weapons as Gita is occurring in a battlefield; all these weapons belong to the Lord. How is a weapon divine?

Two reasons are given:

  1. When weapon is in the hand of a person, it is laukika but in hand of god, it is divine. If everything is in God, everything is sacred.
  2. All weapons are for protecting Dharma as such associated with Lord or divine. God is in form of order and harmony in creation.

Shloka # 11:

दिव्यमाल्याम्बरधरं दिव्यगन्धानुलेपनम्
सर्वाश्चर्यमयं देवमनन्तं विश्वतोमुखम्।।11.11।।

Wearing heavenly garlands and apparel, anointed with heavenly scents, abounding in all kinds of wonder, resplendent, infinite, and with faces everywhere.

In all these shlokas a verb is not given, only adjectives are used. Shloka 10 and 11 are all adjectives to Divya Rupam. The verb is, Sri Krishna showed to Arjuna. The word showed here means God removed obstacles in mind of Arjuna resulting in an attitudinal change and thus a change in perspective only.

Lord is wearing garlands and dresses; it means all malas worn by all people and all dresses worn by all people; Vishunu rupam smeared with divine perfumes; meaning different perfumes used by many different people. Hence, when we apply chandanam we should utter his name and say, I am decorating body of god.

Lord with faces in all directions means people with faces in many directions. Anantam means whose limit is not visible. Even scientists do not know outside limit of the universe. Furthermore, it is an expanding universe; if so where is the limit?

Purusha suktham says that this limitless universe occupies only an insignificant part of Vishva rupa; even this limitless universe itself is in Bhagavan’s one corner; then what should be the size of the Bhagavan; anantam; limitless, both spacewise, and timewise.

So, Vishwa Rupa Ishwara is the greatest wonder.

Shloka 11.12:

दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता
यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः।।11.12

Should the effulgence of a thousand suns blaze forth simultaneously in the sky, that might be similar to the radiance of that exalted One.

What is brilliance of the Lord? I am not able to even look at the sun; sun being an ordinary star. I can’t withstand looking at the sun. Imagine if I can see the brilliance of a thousand suns; imagine if I can see the brilliance of all stars. Sanjaya says, suppose the brilliance of a thousand suns rises simultaneously, that is the comparison for the brilliance of Vishva rupa Ishvara; it will be indescribable.

So that will be the brilliance; that will be the comparison for the brilliance of the mahatma; mahatma means Vishva rupa Ishvara; So that is the brilliance, it is indescribable. Mahatma Here means the infinite body that is the Lord

Shloka 11. 13:

तत्रैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं प्रविभक्तमनेकधा
अपश्यद्देवदेवस्य शरीरे पाण्डवस्तदा।।11.13।।

At that time, Pandava saw there, in the body of the God of gods, the whole diversely differentiated Universe united in the one (Cosmic form).

Sanjaya continues; saying Arjuna saw everything in the infinite body of the Lord. It is divided in manifold forms; Arjuna saw in manifold forms in the body of the Lord. Yashoda also saw the whole universe in Sri Krishna’s mouth. Sharira here is not the limited body rather it is the vast space itself.

Sanjaya reports that before obtaining the Divya Chakshu, Arjuna saw the world as a persecuting world; problematic world; unfaceable world, burdensome world. Now the very same world has become totally different and therefore after being blessed with Divya cakshu Arjuna saw the Vishva rupa.

Take away:

“It is better to have a heart without words rather than words without heart behind it.”  This is the bhavana required.

Divya chakshu is the refined mind free of kama, krodha, raga, dvesha, ahamkara and mamakara.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Bhagawad Gita, Class 142: Chapter 11, Verses 3 to 8

Shloka # 3:

एवमेतद्यथात्थ त्वमात्मानं परमेश्वर
द्रष्टुमिच्छामि ते रूपमैश्वरं पुरुषोत्तम।।11.3।।

Supreme Lord! Highest Spirit! It is even as you have described yourself. Yet I would like to see this lordly form of Yours.

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, Chapter # 11 is dealing with Vishwa Rupa Ishwara Darshanam. We should have a clear understanding of this Ishwara darshanam. It talks of a very thrilling, electrifying experience for devotees. Shabari waited for years for a glimpse of Sri Rama and at last when gets it and the great thrill she enjoys has been described. Similarly Thyagaraja also sings about Shabari’s Darshanam of Rama. Similarly, Sri Krishna darshanam is also talked about. All darshanams are considered mystic ones.

Now, to have an experience, the object of experience must be available to me; also there must be an experiencer, who is prepared for the experience. Let us say I talk about Carnatic music; but unless the listener has some idea of Carnatic music he cannot enjoy my talk, as he is not prepared as a listener. Normally we focus on the object of experience and forget the experiencer. This is true of Ishwara Darshanam as well. Shabari got Sri Rama Darshana Ananda but it was not only due to Sri Rama but also because Shabari was prepared for the darshanam.

How to prove this? Swamiji says, the very same Rama was available to Ravana as well but nothing happened. Object was available but subject was not prepared; Ravana’s mind did not change even after darshanam.

So preparation on part of person is important else even god is helpless.

How about Kamsa? He too had Sri Krishna darshanam but he never changed one bit. Several Rakshasa’s even used the darshanam for negative purposes; Basmasura is one that comes to mind. So, for Ishwara darshanam I need a tremendous amount of preparation.

Vishwa Rupa Ishwara is Lord in form of Universe. If you know it’s meaning, you know he is right in front of you. God’s first name in Vishnu Sahasra Nama is Vishwam. He is already available in front of me. If we don’t get thrill of darshanam, it is because of non-preparedness of devotee. That preparedness is nothing but purity of mind, a mind without kama, krodha, moha, madha, lobha and matsarya. These are the obstructions to this darshanam. When the cataract of the obstacle of kama, krodha, ahamkara and mamakara impurities are removed, God need not come; I begin to appreciate the already available Vishvarupam.

Arjuna says, O lord, I understand you are jagat karnanm. I can understand intellectually that you are in all namas and rupas; but I don’t get its impact.

So, what is missing? A prepared mind is missing and it is also known as Divya Chakshu. It is like one person is interested in Carnatic music but another person is not. So he asks Sri Krishna to help him get darshanam.

“In shloka # 3, you describe Vishwa rupa but nothing happens to me. Where is the lacuna? I would like to see your Vishwa rupa”, says Arjuna.

Shloka # 4:

मन्यसे यदि तच्छक्यं मया द्रष्टुमिति प्रभो
योगेश्वर ततो मे त्वं दर्शयाऽत्मानमव्ययम्।।11.4।।

So we have seen the object of perception is available, Vishva rupa and still if I do not see it, the defect must be only in the observer. There must be some problem with me; therefore I do not feel the divinity when I experience the world. And, therefore, O Sri Krishna, is it possible for me at all; to have that divinity or Vishva rupa darshanam, can you prepare me to have this darshanam?  Please help me!

Purity of mind cannot occur overnight. It requires a lot of Karma yoga and sadhana and the transformation is slow; and it is not a revolution. Is there any method I can get this purity of mind, O Yogeshwara! asks Arjuna.

Shloka # 5, 6, 7 and 8:

पश्य मे पार्थ रूपाणि शतशोऽथ सहस्रशः
नानाविधानि दिव्यानि नानावर्णाकृतीनि ।।11.5।।

The Blessed Lord said O son of Prtha, behold My forms in (their) hundreds and in thousands, of different kinds, celestial, and of various colors and shapes.

पश्यादित्यान्वसून्रुद्रानश्िवनौ मरुतस्तथा
बहून्यदृष्टपूर्वाणि पश्याऽश्चर्याणि भारत।।11.6।।

See the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the two Asvins and the Maruts. O scion of the Bharata dynasty, behold also the many wonders not seen before.

इहैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं पश्याद्य सचराचरम्
मम देहे गुडाकेश यच्चान्यद्द्रष्टुमिच्छसि।।11.7।।

See now, O Gudakesa (Arjuna), the entire Universe together with the moving and the non-moving, concentrated at the same place here in My body, as also whatever else you would like to see. 

तु मां शक्यसे द्रष्टुमनेनैव स्वचक्षुषा
दिव्यं ददामि ते चक्षुः पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम्।।11.8।।

But you are not able to see Me merely with this eye of yours. I grant you the supernatural eye; behold My divine Yoga.

Now, Sri Krishna answers:

Even though Vishva rupa is right in front of me, to get the impact of Vishva rupa darshanam, I should have prepared the mind, which I call, Divya chaksu or purification and purification is a very slow and gradual process. It involves a long religious life and it also involves following dharma or values of life. If devotion and values are not there, for such a mind, the benefit of Vishva rupa darshanam will not be available.

Here, Arjuna was lucky to have Sri Krishna in front of him. He requests a temporary purification of mind.

But the purification will only be temporary; it does not last like a dialysis. Similar temporary purification can even be obtained from a Mahatma.

Since this purification is artificial, its full benefit is not realized. So, later in Chapter # 11, when Arjuna gets the darshanam, he is not able to stand Vishwa rupa darshanam. He tells Sri Krishna, I don’t want this Vishwa rupa darshanam. Only a truly purified mind can absorb such a darshanam.

So, Sri Krishna accepts Arjuna’s request. Just as one needs a 3 D glass for some movies, Sri Krishna says, I will bless you with a Divya Chakshu so that you can see many of my forms, varied in nature; all divine; of different colors and shades. When you will see rupa in many colors it is not a particular form, rather it is all forms and colors of universe, as all are Ishwara varnanam.

Citing an example Swamiji says, form does not belong to the bangle; it belongs to gold. Thus, Sri Rudram describes Shiva in many colors. This rupam is available to all cowherds. They are all the colors of Vishwa rupa Shiva. The green hairs of Shiva are the green trees. My mind should see it as Vishwa rupa darshnam. Thus, we see same colors, but we need to see them with a different attitude; it is like seeing a laddu from Tirupati, it becomes divine; it is appreciated by the mind that has devotion.

Vishwa rupa has many heads. All heads of peoples are the head of god.

Verities of devatas, representing natural forces are described next. The eight Vasus with different forms are Agni, Prithvi, Antarikhsam, Intermediary lokas, Vayu, Aditya, Chandra, and Stars. May you see the eight Vasus in Vishwarupa.

Twelve Adityas are the sun gods’ different changing stages in the twelve months of the year. In each month he has different powers. May you see the Adityas as Vishwarupa.

Our ten sense organs and mind are called Rudra Devata. May you appreciate the Rudras.

Ashwini Kumaras are the ones presiding over Pranas. May you appreciate them as well.

Marut Devatas are different aspects of Vayu Devata. You have not noticed all of them as Vishwarupam.

And therefore rain is a wonder; earth is a wonder; Sun is a wonder; anything you take it, is a wonder,

it is the glory of the Lord. May your see that; temporarily drop your day-to-day business; temporarily keep your cell-phone somewhere. After its (cell phone’s) coming, there is no time for anything; so wherever you go drop it; and just watch the universe.

So in Me the Vishva rupa Ishvara; whose body is the very sky itself, see the entire universe.

When Yashoda asks Sri Krishna to open his mouth she saw all the 14 Lokas; and then she said, shut up. She was not prepared. Sri Krishna is blue as sky; it means vast blue sky is a form of Sri Krishna, with galaxies floating in it. The whole universe is contained in Me.

Last week or so, some student; I do not remember who that student is, gave a cutting; so I just read through it; it is a very interesting write up, I will read only the first paragraph alone. It describes the Universe.

It says, consider a puff of dust a meter in diameter. Consider every grain of dust is a galaxy with many stars. We live near an ordinary star and are member of an ordinary galaxy. Every night we are shown that the universe has a beginning but most of us simple regret, use or enjoy the dark without perceiving that; it brings knowledge; If you are willing to learn from darkness, he says; even though so many stars are there; between the stars there is a vast emptiness is there. Think what must be the size of the universe; which accommodates all these galaxies and stars. This universe, with vast emptiness and galaxies are accommodated in space; so what must be size of the space; and that space is the

size of the Lord; Meditate upon that, Try that.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Mandukya Upanishad, Class 20

Greetings All,

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, I said in last class in Vaithatya Prakaranam, Gaudapada establishes Mithyatvam of world. It is not directly mentioned but indirectly revealed through Prapancha Upashamanam. This method is called Shruti Pramananam or Shrutyartharthi pramanam; which means obtaining knowledge indirectly from scriptures.

What is reality can’t be negated. We can’t say world is not existing as we experience it everyday. That which is experienced, yet is not reality, is called Mithya. The English word closest to Mithya probably is unreal. Gaudapada establishes this mithyatavam from Prapancha Upashamanam.

Mithyatvam’s closest example is dream. It is experienced by all of us. In dream we see that it is very real, giving us pleasure and pain. Dream also has utility value when we are actually in a dream; despite all this we know dream is not real. So best example for mithya is swapna.

In first three shlokas of this chapter Gaudapada establishes swapna is mithya. That swapna is mithya is established through Yukti, Shruti and Anubhava pramanam’s and he does so systematically.

He uses Vyapti for generalization thus he says where there is smoke there is fire. The statement, “a mountain is on fire as it has smoke” is analyzed as shown below ,using Gaudapada’s logic:

  1. Mountain is the paksha or locus about which I make an inference.
  2. Mountain has fire; it is called sadhyam or conclusion.
  3. Because there is smoke, the indicator, it is also known as Hetuhu or the reason.
  4. Drishtantaha: means an example, as in a yagashala; because it is in a yagashala that you get Vyapti Gyanam or knowledge for inference.

This method of logic is now used to show Swapna is Mithya. Vyapti here means knowledge of co-existence of smoke and fire. Here Vyapti is a generalization. When we see an object in jagrat avastha as real, we observe that the object requires an area and volume (space) for existence, also known as Uchita Desha in Sanskrit. Not only volume of space, every object also needs duration (time) for its existence.

Einstein talked of four coordinates, the fourth one being time, indicated by date of origin and expiration. Every object requires a time.

Existence of events also requires duration of time. In Gita classes a question comes up. Swamiji, you teach the 700 verses of Gita in five years or 250 hours, describing the teaching in battlefield; how did Sri Krishna teach all 18 chapters in the duration of a battle? The basis for this question is because every event requires a specific duration of time and if specific duration of time is not convincing, you tend not to believe it.

Conversely if you find an object or event without enough space or time we conclude that object or event is not a real thing. Hence, some say Gita was an invention of Vyasa, as there is a time and space issue. They don’t accept the teaching as real due to a lack of time requirement.

When you see a reflection of an elephant in a mirror, mirror has flat surface and an elephant can’t stand on a flat mirror. You accept elephant in mirror as mithya or unreal reflection, knowing a real elephant can’t stand on the flat surface of a mirror; so the elephant reflection is an unreal one as there is not enough space for an elephant to exist on the mirror. Thus, when sufficient space is not there, that event is mithya.

Applying this logic Gaudapada says, dream world is also mithya as it lacks time and space for dream to exist as reality. Hence dream is unreal. This is the beginning of Vaithatya prakaranam.

Karika # 1:

वैतथ्यं सर्वभावानां स्वप्न आहुर् मनीषिणः
अन्तःस्थानात् तु भावानां संवृतत्वेन हेतुना

The wise declare all objects of the dream as illusory, they all being located within the body and also because of their being in a confined space.

This shloka logically establishes swapna prapancha as mithya. First logic is lack of space; like elephant in a mirror. Dream objects and events are subjective things within our minds, not outside it; else others in the world would also see your dream.

Thus, swapna objects are subjective things in my mind. In dream we see elephants although it requires not an ordinary amount of space. We can’t accommodate an elephant, but we see elephant, moon, stars etc in dream space. So wise people say all objects in our dream are mithya. A special all pervading space is created within my head. Why is it unreal? It is because all objects reside within myself. What is wrong with it? The space within me, within my head is limited or insufficient for a real elephant, or a mountain etc., to exist. Now in next shloka he talks of events that also are mithya as they occur in insufficient space.

Shloka # 2:

अदीर्घत्वाच्च कालस्य गत्वा देशान्नपश्यति  
प्रतिबुद्धश्च वै सर्वस्तस्मिन्देशे विद्यते

On account of the shortness of time, it is not possible for the dreamer to go and see the dream objects. Nor does the dreamer when he wakes up, indeed find himself in all the places seen in the dream.

Yukti pramanam: (by joining together)

In previous shloka “things” were proved as unreal in dream. In this shloka “events” are shown as unreal in dream. Consider a dream trip to Mansarovar. You have to reach an airport, then fly and then trek to mansarovar; but duration of a dream-time is only about 8 hours during your sleep time. Within the span of a dream, during our sleep, we manage to see events such as our marriage, children and even grand children. They say an actual dream only lasts only for about a minute and a half. So, all events are unreal as there is not sufficient time. So, he really does not go to mansarovar. They are all unreal projections of our mind.

Keep in mind that we are accepting it all as unreal in our waking state; in dream state we will not accept our dream as unreal. People pray before going to bed so that they don’t get bad dreams. Why this worry; because our dream experience is very real, during our dream. Vedanta says our waking state is also a mithya. Thus we get Yukti pramanam. Thus, mirror located elephant yukti pramanam is over.

Pratyaksha Pramanam:


In second line of this shloka we get Pratyakhsa pramanam from our experiences. Suppose in dream we went to Kashi; we saw many cows there; and one cow pushes you and you wake up. If it was a real cow you should have woken up in Kashi, but reality is that you woke up in Chennai. From this it is clear we never went anywhere in dream. After waking from dream one does not experience that he is in dream place, hence dream places, dream travel, dream cows, are all, unreal. This is Prathyaksha Pramana.

Shloka # 3:

Shruti and shastra pramanam.

(convincing illustrations on the subject matter which is beyond senses/common cognition)

अभावश्च रथादीनां श्रूयते न्यायपूर्वकम्  
वैतथ्यं तेन वै प्राप्तं स्वप्न आहुः प्रकाशितम्

Strictly conforming to reason and logic, Sruti also declares non-existence of the chariots and so on, perceived in his dream by the dreamer. Moreover, it is said by the seers that Sruti herself declares the illusory nature of dream experiences, and establishes the same through logic and reason.

Shruti Pramanam:

In Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Ch 4., section 3, the waking, dream and sleep states are discussed. In swapna there is nothing. Everything is a mental projection. There are no vehicles, no roads, etc; we manage to project them in our mind. They are mithya even though we experience them. “ Experience does not prove reality” is the lesson of Upanishad. Gaudapada shakes us even further with his declaration that, “ Whatever you experience is not real. There is only one reality, the “ Subject” alone is real.”

This is knowledge of shruti. Therefore unreality is established logically and it is also asserted in Upanishad. The fact is swapna prapancha is mithya.

Shloka # 4:

अन्तःस्थानात्तु भेदानां तस्माज्जागरिते स्मृतम्
यथा तत्र तथा स्वप्ने संवृतत्वेन भिद्यते

Different objects cognized in dream are illusory because they are being perceived to exist. For the same reason the objects seen in the waking state are also to be considered as illusory. Just as in the waking state, so also in the dream, the nature of objects remains the same. The only difference is the limitation of space in case of dream objects, they being seen in the within.

With first three shlokas first topic that swpana Prapancha is mithya, is over. From shlokas 4 through 18, Gaudapada is going to give us a shocking revelation. Our normal thinking is that this world is real while dream world is unreal; this is your assumption, says Gaudapada. He says, even the  Jagrat prapancha is unreal. This has to be very carefully understood and assimilated or it can cause confusion.

When we say dream is unreal, we say this after waking up, as a “Waker”. So it is a Waker’s point of view. However, in dream, from dreamer’s point of view, dream is very real; as whatever happens in dream affects the dreamer. When a dog bites the dreamer, he will feel it and go to a dream doctor and take dream medicine and even pay in dream money. So, one has to think from an appropriate point of view.

Citing an example, a man drank too much at a pub and started seeing double. He asked owner how much he drank. Although he drank only one bottle, pub owner with an intention to cheat said you drank two bottles; and since he was seeing doubles anyway, he said you have to pay for two bottles at Rs 100 each. The drunk took out a hundred-rupee note and said it was Rs 200 for the two bottles; he was still seeing doubles.

Similarly, for dream body, dream world is very real. So also from waker’s point of view this world is very real. Once you wake up, the dream world is now mithya. Similarly, once you shift to Turiyam standpoint, jagrat avastha is also mithya. Thus, Swapna prapancha is real for swapna shariram while Jagrat prapancha is real for sthula shariram. Both are in fact “unreal” in respective jagrat and Turiyam states.

Therefore wise people declare world is Mithya in jagrat avastha, as well. So jagrat prapancha is exactly like dream world. Is there any difference between two states? Between mithya jagrat prapancha and mithya swapna prapancha, Jagrat prapancha is outside of body while swapna prapancha is inside body. The common factor between both states is Mithyatvam.

I accept Swapna prapancha as mithya as it does not have time and space. But Jagrat prapancha has enough time and space; if so why is it Mithya?

Take Away:

“ Experience does not prove reality” is the lesson of Upanishad. Gaudapada shakes us even further with his declaration that, “ Whatever you experience is not real. There is only one reality, the “ Subject” alone is real.”

Once you wake up from dream, the dream world is now mithya. Similarly, once you shift to Turiyam standpoint, jagrat avastha is also mithya.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy


Baghawad Geeta, Class 141: Chapter 11, Verses 1 to 3

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, having completed chapter 10 known as Vibhuti Yoga, now we are entering Chapter 11 known as Vishwarupa darshana yoga. The word yoga attached to each chapter refers to the episode or the topic. So vishvarupa darshana yoga means the episode, which deals with vishvarupa darshanam.  It means Vision of God as Vishwa rupa. What is Vishwa rupa? Rupa means form and Vishwa means world, or Lord whose form is the very universe itself. Then the question comes up, how to get such a vishwa rupa darshanam? When a devotee wants to see God such as Rama, Krishna or Devi, scriptures tell us how to get that darshanam. Scriptures prescribe tapas or meditation or concentration. The devotee decides which form he wants to see. Then he concentrates on that form as per dhyana shloka. He has to learn the dhyana shloka to be able to concentrate on that form.

He has to visualize that particular form and generally a mantra is also taught, just as narada taught mantra to Dhruva, Prahlada etc. and the devotee has to do the Purascharanam of that mantra; Purascharanam means you find out how many letters are there in that mantra; say if there are six letters, you multiply it with as many lakhs; say if it is Gayathri mantra with 24 letters then japa is performed either for 24 lakhs times or 24 crore times. So you do dhyanam; you do Purascharanam, as described in the scriptures; and if a person follows this kind of tapas, the shastras prescribe that the devotee will have the darshanam of the Lord in that particular form.

This is not our mental projection, but the Lord himself through his maya Shakti gives darshanam, in a particular form, to the Devotee. And this exercise is called Devatha sakshatkarah.

Thus devotees such as Tyagaraja and Meera have had darshanam of Rama, Krishna, respectively. Now the question is if he wants to have a vision of God as the world itself, how to do it?

Do we have to invite god to come in form of Vishwa rupa; if so, we have not understood the meaning of Vishwa rupa darshanam. Vishwa rupa means I want to see God as world, but I can’t invite him in this form as he is already in this form. What then should I do to obtain darshanam in the form of the world?

There is only one answer. I have to learn to see the world in the form of god. I should learn that this very world is Ishwara, and then Ishwara alone is giving darshanam to me in the form of the world. There is no other method.

Japa mantras are for Rama, Krishna darshanam, not for Vishwa rupa darshanam. If so, how do I train myself? Here again there is only one method; I must assimilate the teaching that God is material cause of the universe and that he alone manifests as the universe. Here, every vision in front of me is a different version of God. I should clearly understand this teaching and with this my perspective changes. This new perspective is called Divya Chakshu or the mystical eye.

Citing an example, some one gives you a laddu and then tells you it is from Tirupati temple; then immediately your perspective changes; you now, consider the laddu a prasadam and you first apply it to your eyes before eating it. The status of prasadam is not physically evident; it comes from understanding that the laddu is from Tirupati. This prasada is adrishtam or divination of laddu through a change in perspective.

This is the idea communicated by Sri Krishna here. He teaches us as to how to look at world as divine; then I will see that god is giving darshanam all the time, to us.

Sri Krishna says it is better to have God’s darshanam 24 hours rather than one, which comes and goes (Aya Ram Gaya Ram). This nithya ishwara sambandha is Vishwa rupa darshanam obtained by a change in perspective through the teaching.

So Vishwa Rupa darshanam is not like Rama, Krishna darshanam. Here you see God everywhere as described in Chapter 11.

Shloka # 1:

अर्जुन उवाच
मदनुग्रहाय परमं गुह्यमध्यात्मसंज्ञितम्
यत्त्वयोक्तं वचस्तेन मोहोऽयं विगतो मम।।11.1।।

By the words You have spoken, supreme, occult and spiritual, in order to bless me, this delusion of mine has gone.

Here Arjuna addresses Sri Krishna. In the first eight verses, we get an introduction to the topic of Vishva rupa Darshanam and it begins with the Arjuna’s summarization and what he has learned in the previous 10 chapters

In two shlokas he summarizes his learning so far. In shloka # 1 he summarizes chapters 2 through 6 that he says is essence of Jiva rupa varnananam or essential nature of Jiva. Physical body is only a temporary dress, which will be shed at death. Similarly mind is also a temporary instrument that I use in waking and dream states but shed in sleep.

Therefore neither body, am I; nor am I the mind; but I am of the nature of chaitanyam; the consciousness principle. And do you remember the description of consciousness I have given. Consciousness is not a part, product or property of the body; consciousness is an independent entity which pervades and enlivens the body, consciousness is not limited by the boundaries of the body; and consciousness survives even after the fall of the body; that eternal all-pervading consciousness is my nature. Sri Krishna gave a brilliant description of this essential nature of Consciousness, in the 2nd chapter from the 12th shloka, up to shloka No.25.Then he talked about that in the 3rd chapter, in the 4th chapter and in the 5th chapter.

Thus, in Chapter 2, shlokas 12-25, Consciousness is the focus. In Chapters 3, 4, 5, nature of Jiva is presented. Arjuna says I have understood all that very well.

Teaching given by you, purely for blessing me, is for saving me from sorrow (Arjuna Vishada Yoga). They are most sacred words that reveal atma, the reality. They are greatest secret not easily available in the world, from a rare Gyani. The words are spiritual teachings. Through this teaching my delusion is gone.

So you should remember the context of the Gita teaching; Arjuna surrendered to Lord Krishna due to his confusion. On one side, my mind says killing my kith, kin and Guru is not OK, but on the other side I can kill for protection of dharma. Now my doubts are getting cleared regarding confusion as to what is right and wrong. It is confusion about ethics and philosophy. Gita deals with ethical and philosophical confusion.

Normally the veda purva bhaga is meant to resolve

ethical conflict; veda antha bhaga is meant to resolve philosophical confusion. Gita is a unique Shastra, which deals with ethical conflict; as well as philosophical confusion. And therefore Arjuna says; I am getting clearer and clearer.

Shloka # 2:

भवाप्ययौ हि भूतानां श्रुतौ विस्तरशो मया
त्वत्तः कमलपत्राक्ष माहात्म्यमपि चाव्ययम्।।11.2।।

About the birth and dissolution of beings I have heard from You at length, O Lotus eyed one! As also about your immense grandeur.

Arjunas reverence for Sri Krishna as a teacher is increasing. The word Kamalapatra in shloka means God with Lotus Eyes or eyes like lotus petal that describes God’s inner beauty. This was dealt with in Ishwara swarupa chapters 7-10. Chapter 8 is an odd man out. You defined God as jagat karanam. You defined God as material cause of universe. Out of god alone universe comes, rests and resolves; that is Srishti, Sthiti and Laya Karanam. Everything comes from you alone. If waves are born from ocean and resolve in ocean, then there is no separate wave from ocean.

All the things and beings; this whole creation of things and beings is from you alone, as the very adhara, as the very ashraya. That means what? If waves are born out of the ocean and resolves into the ocean, it means there are no waves separate from the ocean; in fact wave is only an additional name given to the very ocean itself; similarly the whole creation is like a wave in the ocean of God. Shankaracharya beautiful presents in atma Bodha that the entire cosmos of several billions of galaxies is nothing but bubbles; so each galaxy can be compared to a small bubble and all these bubbles of galaxies are rising from you; and there are no bubbles separate from ocean. Similarly there is no creation separate from God or to put in another language; God is in the form of world, I heard this very clearly, and how did you teach, very elaborately. The upanishadic teachers are not detailed; rather they give the srishti and all within a few mantras.

The teaching is also for a madhyamadhikari such as me. In chapter 10 you also revealed your glories, Vibhutis, spread all over the universe. These glories are in exhaustible, the Vishwa rupa mahima. Mahatyam and Vibhuti mean the same. The proof is that my delusion is almost gone. It finally goes away completely in chapter 18.

If delusion is gone what is Arjuna’s next question?

Shloka # 3:

एवमेतद्यथात्थ त्वमात्मानं परमेश्वर
द्रष्टुमिच्छामि ते रूपमैश्वरं पुरुषोत्तम।।11.3।।

Supreme Lord! Highest Spirit! It is even as You have described Yourself. Yet I would like to see this lordly form of Yours.

In every shloka Arjuna adds some more glories of God.

Parameshwara: means supreme Lord who sustains physical law of creation. It is also name of Shiva.

Purshottama: means supreme Lord. It is also name of Vishnu. It’s philosophical significance is taught in chapter 15 on topic of Nirguna Brahman.

So Vyasa talks of Vishnu and Shiva as equals. So, O Krishna! whatever you are teaching me is perfectly understandable because it is a systematic teaching; if Bhagavan is the cause, and world is effect; the logical consequence that the effect cannot be separate from the cause; therefore the world cannot be separate from God. It is a very logical conclusion; and if the world is non-separate from God; all the non-glories of the world should naturally belong to the Lord; because of that, I have no resistance in accepting that teaching.

Arjuna says, I am able to intellectually understand that whole world is manifestation of God and that everything is holy. So there is no question of dividing world into acceptable and unacceptable. If I could see world as divine then I will not have Dvesha towards anything. However, the reality is that I have Raga and Dvesha. My intellectual and emotional personalities are not harmonized. I need them to be harmonized. What should I do to get it? I would like to have Vishwa rupa darshanam, while I am interacting with the world.

Dayananda swami beautifully says; we do not have a sacred-secular division in our culture. In many other cultures, sacred is obtained in a temple while everything outside the temple is secular. However, for a Hindu or for a vaidhika, there is nothing called secular, everything is sacred; eating is puja; remember we are doing puja daily; eating is puja, brushing the teeth is puja; snanam is puja, everything that I do is puja and this puja occurs only when I always remember that I am in the presence of the Lord as Vishwa rupa. How can I have contact with that rupam; the vishvarupa Ishvara, you should help me. This is Arjuna’s request, the details of which we will see in the next class.

Take away:

The mode of repetition of a Mantra with feeling and in a particular manner, a definite number of times, with right observances, until a fixed number of Japa is reached, in order to obtain substantial benefit out of the Mantra, is called Purascharana.

Vishwa rupa darshanam:

I have to learn to see the world in the form of god. I must assimilate the teaching that God is material cause of the universe and that he alone manifests as the universe as well or we can say God is both matter and spirit. Here, every vision in front of me is a different version of God. I should clearly understand this teaching and with this my perspective changes. This new perspective is called Divya Chakshu or the mystical eye.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Mandukya Upanishad, Class 18: Chapter 1 Summary

Swamiji gave his summary of chapter 1 also known as Agama Prakaranam, today. In introduction to this Upanishad he had previously indicated that it has four chapters in it.

The first chapter is called agamaprakaranam. This chapter contains the entire Upanishad and 29 karikas. The second chapter is called Vaitathyaprakaranam containing 38 karikas on the mithya nature of the universe. The third chapter is titled Advaitaprakaranam containing 48 karikas dealing with the non-dual nature of atma. The fourth chapter is called Alatashantiprakaranam containing 100 karikas, which clear all the possible objections to the teaching contained in the Upanishad.

Of the four chapters the first one, agama prakaranam, consists of 12 mantras of the Upanishad and the 29 Karikas written by Gaudapada. The 12 mantras belong to Atharvana Veda and are supposed be revelations by God himself. Shankaracharya’s guru’s guru, Gaudapada, however, wrote Karikas. Karika means a commentary in verse. Among the 12 mantras and 29 karikas, prominence is given to the 12 mantras since they are from Upanishad and it is the focus of chapter 1 and is of importance from a Vedic perspective. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 are all about Karikas.

Gist of the Upanishad portion or Mantras of Chapter 1:

Mandukya Upanishad was revealed through Manduka Rishi in the Atharvana Veda.

The first two mantras introduce two types of Vicharas:

1) Chatushpada Atma Vichara or the four facets of Self.

2) Second enquiry is Chatur matra Omkara Vichara. It has four sounds of Omkara.

Both the Atma Vichara and Omkara Vichara are performed to arrive at the absolute reality.

Mantras # 3 through # 7 deal with Chatushpada Atma Vichara.  The essence of these mantras is that they are talking about the four aspects of “I” the Atma.

Mantras # 8 through # 12 deal with Chatur matra Omkara Vichara.

Discussing Mantras # 3- # 7, the following points were made:

  1. The first I, is obtained in Waking state and is the “Waker I”. I in waking state is endowed with various attributes such as weight, size, individuality etc. This is the “attributed I” in jagrit avastha. Here, I comes in contact with external world. It is a finite and limited I. This I is described in mantra # 3. This I also goes by the names of Vishwa and Virat.
  2. The second I is obtained in dream state or the dreamer I. I functions through the projected dream body; the sukhma shariram with attributes determined by dream body. The second and Saguna I, is in the dream state. This I is also finite and limited. This I is also called Taijasa and Hiranyagarbha.
  3. The third I is obtained in sleep state. Here, I am not in waking or dream body; here body is in resolved condition. Sleeper I is also an “attributed I”. In sleep all attributes are in dormant state or in their potential state. Thus, the “Father I” during the waking and dream states is in a dormant state here. All attributes are dormant as well. It is also a state that is limited and finite. Here limitations are also in dormant condition.  The sleeper I is called Pragya and Ishwara. These are technical names given by Upanishad. This is addressed in mantras # 5 and # 6.
  4. My fourth aspect is my real nature, the core nature, also known as Turiyam or Sakshi I. Thus, witness I is free from all attributes. It is the “attribute-less I” or nirguna I. It is described in the most important mantra # 7. This I is attribute-less and limitless. Thus, for every one of our assertions there are many negations. When I say, I am man; I am also saying I am not woman; not an animal; not a pencil etc; all negations. For one assertion there are many negations. Thus, attributes limit an object, while Turiyam is the limitless I. This is the essential I; it is Shantam; Shivam (ananda) and immortality; all three are possible only in Turiyam. So, if you want Shantam, Shivam and Immortality you have to know Turiyam for liberation.

How can I know Turiyam?

I can know Saguna I in waking state. I can know Saguna I in dream sate; I can know saguna I in Sleep state, if so, in which state can I know nirguna I or Turiyam I?

If the three associations result in Vishva, Taijasa and Prajna, what is the Turiyam? What association does

Turiyam have? Turiyam is the name of the atma when it is dissociated from all the three states. I myself,

as consciousness principle, am Turiyam. How do I become Turiyam?

Now mantra # 7 does not talk of a fourth state at all; so where is nirguna I available? The Upanishad says, the nirguna I has to be discovered through the “attributed I” or Saguna I.

Turiyam is available in Vishwa, Taijasa and Pragya states. So there is no need for a fourth state. So, remain in jagrat avastha, analyze and gain Turiyam.

If so, how do I arrive at nirguna I from Saguna I?

Swamiji says it is quiet simple, Saguna I minus gunas gives you nirguna I.

Thus, “Father I” minus fatherhood equals nirguna I. In this manner negate all attributes about yourself and it takes you to Turiyam I.

How do I remove the attributes?

Upanishad says you need not remove attributes at all. I, the consciousness, can never be associated with attributes; just as the light on the hand, does not take on the impurities of the body because light is asangaha. Similarly, I, the consciousness, am also free of attributes. Attributed I does not exist in reality. My thought that I have attributes was born out of my misconceptions. I have to know that I am attribute-less at all times. Citing an example, to illustrate the point, you see a movie on the screen and there you see the very dirty Cuvam River. You want to purify the screen. Swamiji says the screen is pure even when the dirty Cuvam is shown on screen. Screen is not touched by the movie. Therefore, I am the screen-like consciousness; I just have to know that I am free of attributes and knowledge removes these attributes. When I add attributes to waking state, I am Vishwa; when I, add attributes to dream state, I am Taijasa; and when I add attributes to sleep state, I am Pragya. However, when I remove these attributes from any or all of the three sattes, it is Turiyam.

Vishwa minus waking state attributes equals Turiyam.

Taijasa minus dream state attributes equals Turiyam.

Pragya minus sleep state attributes equals Turiyam.

So, Turiyam is obtained through knowledge. This knowledge of Turiyam is described in mantra # 7.

With this chatushpada Atma Vichara is over.

Mantras # 8 through # 12:

Chaturmatra Omkara Vichara is described. Omakra consists of A U M and the Silence that follows known as Amatra.

A is described in mantra # 9.

U is described in mantra # 10.

M is described in mantra # 11 and

Amatra is described in mantra # 12.

Having introduced each mantra, they can be equated to each Pada.


A equates to Virat

U equates to Hirayagarbha

M equates to Ishwara

Amatra equates to Turiya atma.

Having equated one has to begin with upasana. First upasana is meditating on Virat in Akara; then meditating on Taijasa on U kara; and then meditating on Ishwara on M kara. To support meditation, common features were mentioned. They are:

Akara equation with Virat is based on pervasiveness and primacy both also called Apte and adimatvat, respectively.

Ukara equation with Hiranyagarbha is based on superiority and middleness; both also called Utkarsha and Ubhayata respectively.

Mkara and Ishvara equation is based on being similar to a measure and the ground of dissolution, both also called Mithi and Apithi respectively.

Remembering the common features one has to perform each upasana. It will help cleanse the mind. The upasana also provides material benefits. How to perform the upasana has not been described.

Rather, we have to meditate on Omkara and dissolve A into U; U into M; and M into silence and reach the silence or consciousness.

How to perform this? Example of this resolution was discussed as resolving Bangle, Chain and Ring in gold.

How to arrive at gold?

Look at bangle and look there for an object called bangle. You will observe that there is no substance called bangle; there is only gold. You must be convinced that there is no Bangle. Once bangle, the substance has been negated, the word bangle has no more relevance. Without an object where is the need for a word to describe it. This is known as Padartha nisheda and pada nisheda. Thus Virat nisheda is Akara nisheda.

Then come to Chain. Going through same process as with bangle, we realize that there is no object called chain as such the word chain is also negated. Chain padartha is negated; Hiranyagarbha is negated; U kara is also negated.

Then coming to Ring and going through same process as for bangle we realize there is no substance called ring as such and there is no need for word called ring Thus, ring padartha is negated; Ishwara is negated; Makara is negated.

A  (Virat), U (Hiranyagarbha), M (Pragya) all three are saguna Atma.

Pada-padartha division exists only in empirical field where time, space and attributes are there. It exists in saguna field alone. Once you negate everything you will feel blankness. Buddhists call it Shunyam or void. Mandukya says, for “ nothing remains”, you still need a witness of nothingness, known as Shunya Shakshi or Chaitanyam or as per Vedanta, Consciousness. This consciousness illumines the presence or absence of everything. This was pointed out in mantra # 12. Now the Upanishad is over. Benefit of this knowledge is that: whoever knows this, can claim, I am Turiyam.


Gaudapada talks of common and uncommon features of padas.

  1. Pragya, the I in sleep state, is associated with Ignorance (I).
  2. Vishwa and Taijasa, both in jagrat and swapna avastha are associated with Ignorance (I) and Error (E).
  3. Turiyam is associated with none of them.

Ignorance means, not knowing “ I am limitless”.

Error means the notion that “I am limited.”

Gaudapada uses different terms for Ignorance and Error.

Thus, agyanam, agrahanam, nidra, and karanam are the four names for ignorance. Ankuraha, anyathagrahanam, svapna and karyam are the four names for misconception or error.

Another topic is position of each pada. Gaudapada describes the Sthana Trayam as:

Vishwa is in right eye.

Taijasa is in mind

Pragya is in Hiranyagarbha.

Then he describes Bhoga Trayam as follows:

Vishwa has experience of gross world.

Taijasa has experience of inner world.

Pragya has experience of ananda or Sushupti.

The last topic is Omkara dhyanam. Gaudapada uses word Pranava to describe Omkara. In word Pranava, Pra means perfect; while navaha means, so named.

So pranva means ideal name, that is Om, which stands for Brahman. Why is Om ideal name for Brahman? Other names reveal saguna or nirguna aspects only once. Om is ideal as it reveals both Saguna and Nirguna Brahman.

Sound part of Om reveals Saguna Brahman. Silence between two Omkara’s reveals nirguna Brahman. Saguna Brahman has three parts, Virat, Hiranyagarbha and Ishwara. Om also has three divisions, A U M. So every aspect of Brahman is revealed in OM, hence it is the Uttama Nama.

One has to practice Omkara dhyanam. In beginning focus on sound part, that also includes Virat, Hiranyagarbha and Ishwara. This is called Aparam Brahman.

Once you have advanced in meditation, move to silence and expand on it. Chant Om and dwell on silence. In silence reflect on teaching. Silence is Amatra; it is not blankness; it is absence of everything except the I, who am aware of the silence. The silence is Nirguna, Ananta etc. I have to see this as my swarupam. So it becomes swarupa dhyanam, which leads us to liberation. This concludes the 29 Karikas as well.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy

Bhagawat Geeta, Class 139: Chapter 10, Verses 35 to 42

Shloka # 35:

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम्
मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः।।10.35।।

I am also the Brhat-sama of the Sama (-mantras); of the metres, Gayatri. Of the months I am Marga-sirsa, and among seasons, spring.

Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, Sri Krishna, enumerating the glories of Ishwara in shloka # 35 said, “ I am Sama among Vedas; I am Gayathri among mantras.” Gayathri is a representative of Vedas. Veda is also called Brahman. That is why Gayathri Upadesha is called Brahmupadesha or Veda Upadesha. In Chandogya Upanishad, Gayathri is presented as Brahman for meditation. Brahma sutra also analyzed it, as well. The mantra occurs in Rg, Yajur and Sama Vedas, as well.

Among all months I am the period between Dec 15- Jan 15, known as Margashirsha. This month is considered important because at that time land is full of crops, grains are plentiful, and prosperity on earth is high. Other commentators say that it is the dawn of the Devatas. Devatas one day equates to one year of human beings.  The time before start of such a day is called Brahma Muhurtha. Brahma Muhurtha is a satvic period. Hence that month is important for spiritual practices.

Among six seasons I am Vasantha. The six seasons are: vasantha, varsha, sharat, hemantha, shishira and grishma. Vasantha Ritu is the period when flowers blossom and people are happy; the most pleasant season, when I am Kusumakaraha, meaning I am the abundance of flowers.

Shloka # 36:

द्यूतं छलयतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम्
जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववतामहम्।।10.36।।

Of tricksters I am the game of dice; of the vigorous I am vigor; I am victory, I am resolution; of the virtuous, I am virtue.


Among those activities that rob us of our discriminative powers, I am gambling. Gambling makes one addicted. Kalidevata resides in several places and deludes human minds says, Bhagavan. In entire Mahabharata the message is that if we are not careful, gambling can suck us down. Dharmaputra got hooked on it and lost his sense of propriety and lost his wife and brothers. He knew Dharma and yet lost his balance. In our younger days parents used to tell us not to play cards because of this.


I am internal brilliance amongst all brilliant people. Brilliance is one who resists temptations. It is easier to say no the first time as it becomes more difficult later. Therefore I am that brilliant discrimination that resists temptations.


I am Satva guna among Satvic people.  I am the satva guna, which represents spiritual inclination; rajo guna represents materialistic inclination; Artha-kama inclination is caused by rajo guna; Dharma moksha inclination is caused by satva guna; and tamo guna obstructs our inclination for both of them; tamo guna makes a person lazy with neither materialistic inclination, nor spiritual inclination.

Scriptures say Tamasic person must cultivate material desires and then go to Spiritual desires. That spiritual desire is Satva Guna.

Vyavasayaha: means prayatna or effort. This effort is to fulfill spiritual desires. Thus Pancha Maha Yagna is important for Chitta Shuddhi. It is industry as a character of mind where I will lead one to victory or success.

Thus, Satva Guna triggers Vyavsayaha victory. I am That. If we get spiritual success we should not be arrogant as even that is due to the Lord. Pull of free will should be backed by Ishwara anugraha.

Shloka # 37:

वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनंजयः
मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः कवीनामुशना कविः।।10.37।।

Among members of the Vrsni clan, I am Vasudeva; among pandavas, I am Arjuna. Among the contemplative sages, I am Vyasa; among the seers, I am seer Usnaha.

Among descendants of Vrishni’s (Yadava Vamsha) I am Vasudeva. One of Sri Krishna’s names is Varshneya.

Why does he claim he is greatest here; because Sri Krishna is an avatara of God. Why is Sri Krishna most glorious among avataras? In Sri Krishna avatara alone God performs as a liberating Acharya, as Jagat Guru. Therefore Sri Krishna’s teaching of the Bhagavat Gita is one of the three main textbooks of Vedanta shastra. These three books are known as Prasthana Trayam. First one, the Upanishads, is called the shruti prasthana; the second one is bhagavad Gita called the smrti prasthanam; and the third one is brahma sutras, the nyaya prasthanam.

The Gita, even now is fresh and valid; it is not an obsolete textbook; rather it is a valid teaching; and since Krishna is the Gitacharya, he is the greatest one.

Among Pandavas I am Arjuna himself. Why is Arjuna the greatest and not Dharmaputra? If Gita is the grestest shastra, Arjuna was the first receiver of this greatest teaching. He got teaching from Narayana himself.  Why was Arjuna chosen for giving Gita teaching? Several reasons are given but most obvious one is that Arjuna asked Sri Krishna for the teaching.

Among Muni’s, I am Vyasa Acharya. Why so? Sri Krishna is the greatest Acharya as he is a brahma vidya acharya. Among prastahna Trayam one contribution is by Sri Krishna and other of the Brahma sutra is by Vyasa. Vyasa, within Mahabharata, did even the compilation of Gita. He contributed to both Gita and Brahma sutra. During amaniavattam tarpanam there is a prayer offered to Krishnadvaipayana or Vyasa. Therefore, among Rishis, I am Vyasa. He got name Vyasa as he compiled the Vedas as well. He called four disciples and asked for their assistance. Vyasa’s original name was Krishnadvaipayana; he was also called Vedavyasa and thus became known as Vyasa.

Among great seers, who can see all three kalas, I am Shukracharya; or Usana, the asura guru. Here Kavi does not mean a poet rather he is a Kranta darshi or one with ESP; who sees beyond sense organs.

Shloka # 38:

दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम्
मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवतामहम्।।10.38।।

Of those who chastise, I am the rod; of those who seek victory, I am the tactics. Of secrets, I am the silence, and of the learned, I am knowledge.

Among disciplinarians or orderliness, I am Danda, the rod of punishment. The process of discipline can include: Requesting, education and punishment. Sri Krishna says generally people are immature and gross; and therefore education, good words, etc. do not work; generally, what works is, dandah or punishment.

Here Sama, Dana, Bheda and Dandam come to mind. Danda gives instantaneous results. Nowadays corporate punishment is prohibited in schools.

Among causes of victory, among victors I am Nitihi or diplomacy. It leads to success.

Among secrets, I am, maunam. Maunam also represents Brahman. In silence there is nothing but Consciousness. In Mandukya Upanishad it says, nothingness is witnessed by consciousness.

Among or in wise people, I am wisdom. When you perform namaskrara to a gyani, you are doing namaskara to his Gyanam or God himself.

Shloka # 39:

यच्चापि सर्वभूतानां बीजं तदहमर्जुन
तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम्।।10.39।।

And that which is seed of all beings, I am, Arjuna! That which is without Me, mobile or stationary, exists not.

Here Sri Krishna concludes enumeration of his glories. He says I am the seed or material cause of creation. Clay is material cause of all earthenware; gold is material cause of all ornaments; wood is material cause of all furniture etc. Material cause expresses as effect or existence. When I say an ornament “is”, the “Is” ness belongs to Gold alone; while ornament itself is just a nama and rupa. Remove gold from ornament, it loses its existence.

Therefore when you say wall is: Isness belongs to me; when you say: fan is: Isness belongs to me; In short, I am the Sat in the creation; I am existence in every being. Therefore, there is nothing in creation, moving or stationary that exists, without my blessing. Who is God? Is ness is the God; all others are nama rupa only.  Thus he started with chit, ended with sat; chit and sat are nirguna Ishvara vibhuthi; and all others are saguna Ishvara vibhuthi; vibhuthi means mahima.

Shloka # 40:

नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परंतप
एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया।।10.40।।

Scourge of foes! There is no limit to My divine powers. What has been stated by Me is only illustrative of the extent of that puissance (power).

Here Sri Krishna says, Arjuna, I have stopped enumerating my glories. If I have to list all of them it is inexhaustible. My intention is to give a sample of glories. My divine glories have no end. Why then enumerate them? This enumeration is only a random sample of my glories. How to extend this list? Sri Krishna says, I will tell you how to do it by yourself.

Shloka # 41:

यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वं श्रीमदूर्जितमेव वा
तत्तदेवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजोंऽशसंभवम्।।10.41।।

Whatever being has power, glory, or energy, know (each of them) to be born of a part of My splendor.

Sri Krishna says you can make your own list. When you see creation in daily life, if you see something that is wonderful (natural or artificial) that makes you awe struck or rich or abundant or powerful, like energy of sun; anything beautiful, when you see it, remember Me. When you see such a thing you prostate and hand it over to temple. Powerful, rich, etc are all an infinitesimal part of god’s glory; that is why we worship nature.

Shloka # 42:

अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन
विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत्।।10.42।।

O Arjuna! Wherefore should you know so much of all these? Encompassing this entire world by a fragment of My power, do I abide, eternally.

Sri Krishna says, Arjuna! you can look at all this from a different perspective as well. Thus water being present in every wave; bubble or drop is one way of looking at water. Really speaking, all waves, bubbles and drops are all in water.

In a similar manner the whole creation is in Me. I remain supporting this creation or another way of seeing it is, that this entire creation is in Me.

Space is not within this hall; that is not the correct statement; rather all the Halls are in space. Similarly Bhagavan is not in the living beings; but all living beings are in Bhagavan; and that too they do not occupy the whole Bhagavan; I am only sustaining them; in one corner of Me; So the whole cosmos is only occupying a part of Me; so how big I am; so the whole cosmos is like a bubble in Me; the ocean; So with this Krishna concludes the description of His glories.

Take away:

Tamo guna makes a person lazy with neither materialistic inclination, nor spiritual inclination.

A tamasic person must cultivate material desires and then go on to spiritual desires. That spiritual desire is Satva Guna.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Baghawat Geeta, Class 138: Chapter 10, Verses 33 – 35

Shloka # 33:

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य
अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताऽहं विश्वतोमुखः।।10.33।।

Aksaranam, of the letters; I am the akarah, letter a. Samasikasya, of the group of compound words, I am the compund (called) Dvandva. Besides, aham eva, I Myself; am the aksayah, infinite, endless; kalah, time, well known as ‘moment’ etc.; or, I am the supreme God who is Kala (Time, the measurer) even of time. I am the dhata, Dispenser, the dispenser of the fruits of actions of the whole world, visvatomukhah, with faces everywhere.


Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, we are seeing Sri Krishna continue enumeration of the glories of Ishwara. In Shloka # 33, he said that among Aksharas I am Aa. Sarasvati Devi is in the form of Alphabetic letters. Even among all letters Aa is most sacred. It is sacred because it is a basic letter that emerges from our mouth without doing anything to the mouth. Thus sounds such as E, U come about by some modification to the mouth whereas Aa is an effortless sound of the mouth. Akara is also a flexible sound that can be modified into other alphabets. Hence Aa kara is considered Karana aksharam, causal sound, while all other alphabets are considered Karya Aksharam, the effect. Vedas say that A Kara manifests as all other letters. It says all letters are a modification of Aa. In our tradition every alphabet has a presiding deity. The presiding deity of Aa is Brahmaji, the Creator of the world. Since Aa is the cause of all letters, Sri Krishna says, I am letter Aa.

Samasha:  Are compound words that are properly arranged. By compound words I save prepositions. Citing an example, in the sentence, I bought puja material really means I bought material for puja. Puja material is thus a compound word. Similarly, the sentence, I went to Shiva temple, really means I went to a temple where Shiva is worshipped. Similarly, Ganga water really means water from Ganga.

And how do you know what preposition is to be used; you know it from the context thus Ganga water means water from Ganga; Pooja material means material for pooja. And Adayar class does not mean classes

From Adayar rather it means classes conducted in Adayar. So in which place, which preposition is to be used, we get to know from the context.

Similarly, when I say I went to Birla Mandir, what I really mean is that I went to a temple built by Birla, which is the context.

This compound formation is very systematic. Four basic compounds are enumerated and these four are later expanded into 7 types of compound, then these types of compounds are further expanded into 35 types of compounds; Thus we have many compounds called samasaha; and these group of compounds are called

Saamasikam. Samasikam means samasanam samuham; the group of compound are:

tatpurusha samas; bahuvrihi samasa; karmadharaya samas; Dvigu samas; dvandva samas; avyayibhaava samas.  In Sanskrit we can compound words, which can contain tens of words joined together.  Thus, Kalidasa’s Shyamala Dandakam has many samasaha words. Therefore, among compounds I am Dvanda samasaha, says, Sri Krishna.

Kala Tatvam:

Sri Krishna says I am Kala Tatvam that puts an end to everything however kala itself has no end, meaning it is inexhaustible time. Even in pralaya, kala continues into the next creation. And because of the continuity of kala

alone, the next cycle of shristi is possible. Therefore Sri Krishna says I am the kala tatvam, which is inexhaustible.

Dhata: means karma phala dhata. One who gives appropriate karmas at right place, at right time, to right person, for all beings in the Universe. Sri Krishna says I am Karma phala dhata.


He also says, my face is turned in all directions, so I can see everywhere.

Shloka # 34:

मृत्युः सर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्च भविष्यताम्
कीर्तिः श्रीर्वाक्च नारीणां स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः क्षमा।।10.34।।

And I am Death, the destroyer of all; and the prosperity of those destined to be prosperous. Of the feminine (I am) fame, beauty, speech, memory, intelligence, fortitude and forbearance.


I am greatest robber, Kala, who will take away everything from a jiva. We can’t take anything at time of death. What you can carry at death is only one’s papam and punyam. Thus, death, or Yama, takes everything from you.

Citing a story, a man had a lot of property. He wanted to give it away. He challenged that one has to run as far as possible from sunrise to sun set, the distance, in land, covered would be given as a gift to runner. One person took the challenge and ran; as he came to closer to sunset, he wanted to get more distance and ran the last few minutes very hard and in doing so, he collapsed and died. So, what happened to all the land he acquired?

So, I am destroyer, samhara tatvam, Says Sri Krishna.


I am Udbhava, meaning source of future prosperity or wealth. The resource or source of all the future prosperity or future wealth; because if you have to

produce anything in future, they all must be there potentially; we can never generate anything if that provision is not there and Sri Krishna says that provision is myself.

Kirti, Sri, Nari, Smriti, Medha:

Female Devatas such as Mahalaxmi, goddess of wealth; Sarawati, goddess of knowledge and Parwati, Goddess of Shakti are called adhishtana devatas. Why do we have these devatas? Some universal laws govern everything. Such laws govern even our organs. These laws function because of an intelligent principle. For every government law too there is an officer required to maintain it. Any law is governed by an intelligent principle.

Thus it flows as follows: Higher Intelligence> Laws> Object.

Adhishatna devatas include Bhumi devata, alphabet devata etc are all aspects of Ishwara or God or Total intelligence.

So God for Kirti, name and fame, is called Kirti devata. Similarly we have Vak devata, Smriti devata, and Medha devata. Vedas have prayers for all such Devatas, thus there is a medha suktam.

Dhriti: means Perseverance or will power or continued effort despite failures. It is the resilience like a rubber ball that bounces back. There are several types of people. One who upon failing renounces every thing. The other type is a person, who upon failing, keeps trying again and again.

I am Dhriti says Sri Krishna.


Medha means intelligence principle; we do not know why some brains are very intelligent and others not. So there are again laws governing this and that devatha is called medha devatha; and we have got Vedic prayers directed to medha such as  medha sukhtam; a special prayer for medha devi;

Kshama: means Patience or the capacity to wait. It is often tested at traffic stops where we have to wait. I am Kshama says, Sri Krishna.

Shloka # 35:

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम्
मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः।।10.35।।

I am also the Brhat-sama of the Sama (-mantras); of the metres, Gayatri. Of the months I am Marga-sirsa, and among seasons, spring.

Sama Mantra:

Among sama mantras, I am Brihat Sama, a mantra, a very suspicious one, glorifying the Lord. This mantra praises God; hence it is known as Brihat or infinite one. I am Brihat Sama mantra, says Sri Krishna.

Gayathri Mantra:

I am gayathri mantra among all Veda mantras, says Sri Krishna. The word Chandas has two meanings; one is it is a Vedic meter and second one is, it is a Vedic mantra as well. Chandas provides rules of poetry. There are many chandas such as Anushtup, Trishtup etc.

Among Vedic mantras I am Gayathri. Gayathri has two meanings. Gayathri is a meter consisting of three lines, with 8 letters in each. Gayatri is also a mantra. Why is Gayathri glorius? Its main glory is that it is Veda saraha. Brahmaji wanted to take essence of vedas (Rg, Yajur and Sama) and he got gayathri.

Thus, we have:

Rg veda sara: Tatsavitha varenyam

Yajur Veda sara: Bhargo devasya Dhimahi

Sama Veda sara: Dhiyo yonaha prachodayat.

This mantra was originally called Savitri mantra. Savithri is name of Surya devata. It was set in gayathri meter hence it is called gayathri.

Also, Om Bhur Bhuvaha is not part of Gayatri mantra, it was added to aide the chanting of the mantra.

Since it is essence of Vedas, it is called Veda itself. Hence father teaches Gayathri to son and it continues on.

Gayathri mantra protects one from all papams or invisible negative effects. How come all people are not allowed to chant Gayathri?

Only one’s who are initiated can chant Shrauta Gayathri.

Shrauta Gayathri is from Vedas.

Smartha gayathri can be chanted by anyone. Smartha Gayatri is from Smriti’s.

Smartha gayatri is as follows:

yo devah savitasmakam dhiyo dharmati gocarah|

prerayet tasya yat bhargah tatvarenya mupasmaheh ||

Essence of Gayathri mantra:

The meaning is very simple: we are meditating upon the sacred efflugence of Sun God.

And why are we meditating and worshipping Gayathri? What do we get out of it? Gayathri is that effulgence which activates our intelligence or buddhi. So therefore, I worship the solar effulgence, because it is supposed to activate my brain; my medha shakti increases, memory power increases; and that is why for brahmacharis, or students, gayathri was emphasized; because it gives every student memory power.

Gayathri activates buddhi shakti; and therefore Sri Krishna says, I am Gayatri Mantra; if a person does not chant the gayatri; he loses all the advantages of being a vaidika purusha.

And it is said in our tradition that without chanting gayatri; whatever other mantras one chants, they all will not be that effective; on the other hand, if he chants gayatri, then no other mantra is required at all.

And furthermore, gayathri itself is divided into two based upon how it is read; thus,one says, tat savithu varenyam while other says tat savithu vare niyam; Second one has 24 letters, while first one 23 letters. One with 24 letters is called gayathri. Second one with 23 letters is called nichir Gayathri. During sandhyavandhanam; one is supposed to chant nichir gayathri;


Among 12 months of the year I am Marga shirsha or the period from Dec 15 to January 15.

Take away:

Gayathri: Its main glory is that it is Veda saraha.

Gayathri’s meaning: We are meditating upon the sacred efflugence of Sun God.

If a person does not chant the Gayathri, he loses all the advantages of being a Vaidika purusha.

Once you chant Gayathri, you don’t need to chant any other mantra.

During sandhyavandhanam we are supposed to chant the nichir gayathri with 23 letters.

Smartha gayatri is as follows:

yo devah savitasmakam dhiyo dharmati gocarah|

prerayet tasya yat bhargah tatvarenya mupasmaheh ||

Smartha Gayathri can be chanted by anyone.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy



Mandukya Upanishad, Class 17

Karika # 23:

अकारो नयते विश्वमुकारश्चापि तैजसम्
मकारश्च पुनः प्राज्ञं नामात्रे विद्यते गतिः २३

The sound letter A helps the meditator to attain a well-developed waking personality (vishva). The meditator on U attains a well-developed Taijasa (mind and intellect) and for one who meditates on M reaches Prajna. In the “ soundless” state, after Mkara, there remains no attainment.

 Swamiji said the Upanishad is analyzing Omkara from mantra # 8 onwards. The Upanishad talked about Omkara and A U M was equated to first three padas of atma. It also gave three Upsanasas to practice for the unprepared students. Thus meditating on Akara symbolizes Virat, U kara symbolizes Hiranyagarbha and M kara symbolizes Pragya or Anataryami, respectively.

After practicing the upasana for some time one comes to Omkara Vichara and then resolves A U and M. An example of this process of resolution was provided by our discussion of Bangle, Chain, Ring and Gold. We found there is no substance called bangle, chain or ring respectively. We found that in all of them gold alone is the substance. This understanding that there is no bangle, chain or ring is called padartha-nisheda or negating substantiality of all three ornaments except gold. Padartha Traya Laya, this dissolution of all three, occurs by clear thinking. Once this dissolution occurs question may come up as to why when three padarthas are not there anymore why do we still have the three words? Now, existence of a word is relevant only if there is a corresponding object. First substance, bangle was negated; then we found there is no relevance for word ring as well and in a similar manner relevance of chain was also negated. Padatraya nisheda, means negation of corresponding words. Thus padartha and padatraya, that is all three padas (Virat, Hiranyagarbha and Pragya) and respective three matras (A U M, are negated and then only advaitam gold remains.

Similarly we have to negate sthula, sukshma and karana prapanchas just as we did for padarthas. Once we negate three padarthas only Turiyam remains. There are no more stula, sukshma, and Karana prapancha substances as well. The relevant words also have no more relevance; hence A U M also has no relevance. We have to keep in mind that A U M corresponds to sthula, sukshma and karana prapanchas. Thus A U M are also gone. What is left is Amatra the only substance or only truth of all three and this has to be revealed by an enquiry. This Amatra is now revealed in Mantra # 12.

Mantra # 12:

अमात्रश्चतुर्थोऽव्यवहार्यः प्रपञ्चोपशमः

शिवोऽद्वैत एवमोङ्कार आत्मैव


एवं वेद १२

That which has no parts, the soundless, the cessation of all phenomena, all blissful and non-dual AUM, is the fourth, and verily it is the same as the Atman. He, who knows this, merges his self in the supreme Self, the individual in total.

By negating Prapancha Trayam we come to Turiyam. By negating Matra Trayam (Omkara) we come to Amatra. Amatra is silence following Om. Amatra is the fourth matra. There is no dimension to this silence known as Amatra. This silence is also not finite like A U M. Definition of Amatra: It is exactly same as Turiyam as defined in mantra # 7.

As per this definition, Amatra or truth of Omkara, equals Turiyam, truth of universe. Also, Amatra is fourth part of Omkara even as Turiyam is the fourth pada of Atma. You can never talk about Turiyam and Silence.

When one talks, you know his language, but when a person is silent there is no language spoken; it is attributeless. It is free from pada prapancha, A U M. While Turiyam is free from padartha prapancha or world of objects, Amatra is free from world of names.

Shivaha, in mantra means Amatra or auspicious. Advaita means Amatra is non-dual. In this manner Omkara and four padas of Atma are identical. If I know this, what is the benefit? If a man knows that he is not Vishwa, Taijasa and Karana prapancha but that he is Turiyam, he enters into Atma.

Here, we have to remember that Amatra, the fourth matra, can be translated as silence. This silence is not mere absence of sound or its non-existence; rather, it is Consciousness principle that illumines absence of silence. This silence is Consciousness principle. This silence is not blankness; it is presence of Chaitanyam. This Chaitanya silence is the fourth matra of Omkara. The beauty of this silence is that it can co-exist with sound that is A U M while normal silence cannot. Consciousness can co-exist with A U M. Therefore; Amatra is Chaitanya Tatvam which is Turiyam as well. With this phala shruti of Omkara Vichara is complete.


By enquiry into Atma we come to Turiyam

By enquiry into Omkara we come to Amatra.

Through this enquiry we come to pure consciousness.

With this the Upanishad is over. Gaudapada now further explains mantra # 12 in Amatra Karika.

Karika # 24:

ओंकारं पादशो विद्यात्पादा मात्रा संशयः  
ओंकारं पादशो ज्ञात्वा किंचिदपि चिन्तयेत् २४

The AUM syllable should be known quarter by quarter. There is no doubt, indeed, that the quarters (of the Self) are the same as the morae (letters of AUM). Having grasped thus the entire significance of Omkara, nothing else whatsoever should be thought of.

While writing his commentary Gaudapada consolidates his teaching of his previous karikas as well. He says, one has to clearly understand that the four padas of Atma equate with four matras of Omkara; thus every pada equates to a specific matra. Having clearly known Omkara and Atma, thereafter he should not have any other thought; he should arrive at Turiyam and abide in it.

(My Note: After understanding the four equations clearly, one should practice nididhyasanam with the Omkara mantra. Omkara can be used as a support for nididhyasanam. How do you meditate? Chant OM and

when you come to silence, you have to dwell upon the knowledge that there are two components in that

silence, one is silence and the other is consciousness. Then turn your attention from silence to

Consciousness then you claim that you are that Turiyam consciousness. This is called silence meditation.)

Karika # 25:

युञ्जीत प्रणवे चेतः प्रणवो ब्रह्म निर्भयम्  
प्रणवे नित्ययुक्तस्य भयं विद्यते क्वचित् २५

Soak the mind with the roar of AUM; Identify the mind with the sound of AUM; AUM is Brahman the ever fearless. He who is always unified with AUM shall know no fear whatsoever.

Having studied Mandukya and equating Omkara to the four padas of Atma, one must dwell on this through nidhidhyasanam.

Thus when one meditates on first pada Gross Cosmos comes up.

When he meditates on second pada Sukshma Prapancha comes up.

When he meditates on third pada Karana Prapancha comes up.

When he meditates on fourth pada, Turiyam comes up and he should see that other three prapanchas are non-substantial.

With Turiyam he should know that other three do not have any substance just as bangle (sthula prapancha), chain (Sukshma prapancha) and ring (karana prapancha) do not have a substance. This process of assimilation is nidhidhyasanam.

Similarly, A becomes meaningless as does U and M as well. In silence word disappears; there will only be silence consciousness. Student must perform this nidhidysanam. Now sound part of Omkara is saguna Brahman while silence part of Omkara or Amatra is nirguna Brahman. Pranava in the karika means Omkara.

This one has to learn to see in the sadhana. This will provide freedom from all insecurities. All these shlokas are nidhidhyasana shlokas. Gaudapada says you have to dwell on Omkara as often as possible as it will help in arriving at the “silence awareness”. Through Om one comes to this silence.

Advantages of this nidhidhyasanam: Once I know I am silence awareness, I am not afraid of death anymore. Sthula shariram is mortal, Suskhma shariram is mortal and Karana shariram is also mortal but I, the silence, am free from mortality.

Karika # 26:

प्रणवो ह्यपरं ब्रह्म प्रणवश्च परः स्मृतः  
अपूर्वोऽनन्तरोऽबाह्योऽनपरः प्रणवोऽव्ययः २६

AUM is verily the lower Brahman and it is also declared to be supreme Brahman. Pranava is without any cause preceding It, without subsequent manifestation, without anything inside and outside, unrelated to any effect and changeless.

All these karikas are Omkara dhyanam related. Omkara is both Nirguna Brahman (without attributes) and Saguna brahman (with attributes).

A U M represents Saguna Virat, Hiranyagarbha and Anataryami while the silence following OM represents Nirguna Brahman.

The fourth matra of Omkara is without any second thing either inside or outside.

It is like the bangle; is it inside or outside of gold? Bangle, in fact does not even exist, as such where is the question of inside or outside?

When there is no world, where is the inside or outside to it? Thus, there is no matter inside or outside of Atma, the Consciousness. There is no matter inside or outside of Atma. In fact there is no substance called matter. Matter is just a word we use.

In Karika: Purva means karanam; Aparam means Karyam; Apurva anaparaha means beyond cause and effect.

Now, Padas one and two come under Karyam; Pada three comes under karanam; while Turiyam is karya karana vilakshanam as detailed in Karika # 11.

Consciousness is beyond matter, time and space. Avyaya means free from changes.

Karika # 27:

सर्वस्य प्रणवो ह्यादिर्मध्यमन्तस्तथैव  
एवं हि प्रणवं ज्ञात्वा व्यश्नुते तदनन्तरम् २७

AUM is verily the beginning, the middle and end of all. Knowing AUM as such, verily one attains immediately to that supreme Reality.

Gold is the only truth. It is the substance that pervades all ornaments. It is substance of ornaments. If you seek gold in ornaments in beginning, middle and in the end it is all pervading, as it alone gives existence to all three ornaments.

Similarly the beginning, middle and end of creation are borrowed from Turiyam. Prana vaha means silence, awareness part of pranava. It is beginning, middle and end; this is true both spatially and time wise. Turiya Chaitanya is content of all.  Owning up to Silence Awareness is Me. At that time there is blankness, there is stillness that is you, as witness of silence. I am that Chaitanyam, Instantaneously one becomes one with Turiya Chaitanyam.

Karika # 28:

प्रणवं हीश्वरं विद्यात्सर्वस्य हृदि संस्थितम्
सर्वव्यापिनमोंकारं मत्वा धीरो शोचति २८

Know AUM to be Isvara, the Lord, ever-present in the hearts of all; the man of discrimination realizing AUM as all-pervading does not ever grieve.

Omkara has two meanings. Direct meaning is it is the sound of Omkara; second meaning is the implied silence that follows Omkara.

Silence is the consciousness that makes blankness known. Therefore, Omkara implies Consciousness or it means awareness of Silence. It is Paramatma. Where is he, the paramatma, residing? Lord resides in mind of all and Omkara consciousness is in mind of all, as witness of presence and absence of thought. So consciousness is all pervading. For one who can understand this there is no grief (samasara) in life. He is a Muktaha.

Karika # 29:

अमात्रोनन्तमात्रश्च द्वैतस्योपशमः शिवः  
ओंकारो विदितो येन मुनिर्नेतरो जनः २९

One who has known AUM, which is moraeless and of multiple morae (meaning AUM which is soundless and of infinite sounds) and which is ever peaceful because of negation of all duality in it, is the true sage; none other.

In this concluding karika Gaudapada reminds us of mantra number twelve’s definition of Amatra.

Definition of Amatra: Amatra is one without any limitation; either related to space or time. A is limited; U is limited; M is limited; but Amatra does not have any limitation. In meditation we should not work for relative silence; here sound comes and it displaces silence. However, Vedanta says this is not the truth. The true silence is Chaitanyam that is absolute silence; which is free from duality. It is present in silence and sound. It is ever auspicious; it is never disturbed by sound, just as waker’s silence is not disturbed by dreamer’s noise. This person who recognizes Omkara in this manner is a real Seer, a wise person. With this the Amatra karika is over; Chapter # 1 is over; and Upanishad is also over.

Take Away:

Omkara meditation:

Chant OM and when you come to silence, you have to dwell upon the knowledge that there are two components in that silence, one is silence and the other is consciousness. Then turn your attention from silence to consciousness and claim that you are that Turiyam, consciousness. This is called silence meditation.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy


Mandukya Upanishad, Class 16

Mantra # 11:

सुषुप्तस्थानः प्राज्ञो मकारस्तृतीया मात्रा

 मितेरपीतेर्वा मिनोति वा

 इदं सर्वमपीतिश्च भवति

एवं वेद ११

Pragya, whose sphere of activity is deep sleep, is M the third letter of AUM, because it is both the “measure” and also “ that wherein all become one”. One who knows this identity of Pragya and M is able to know the real nature of things and beings, and also come to realize as being the Self of all.

Swamiji said the Upanishad is in Omkara Vichara from mantra # 8 onwards. In Mantra # 8 it pointed out that the four padas of Atma could be equated to four matras of Omkara; that is A U M and the silence following M is known as Amatra.

From mantra # 9 onwards, each matra was equated to each pada in progressive order. Thus Aa was equated to Vishwa or Virat. In Mantra # 10 the second pada Taijasa or Hiranyagarbha was equated to matra U.

In mantra # 11 the third pada of Pragya and Ishwara was equated to M kara.

Incidentally, after equating, the Upanishad prescribed three upasanas. Aim of Upanishad is not upasana but Vichara. Assuming some students may not be ready for Vichara the Upanishad prescribes the three upasanas. Shankaracharya says upasana is not main topic of the mantras.

The main two features of each of the three upasanas were then pointed out as:

Upasana # 1: it is Aptehe and adimatva.

Upasana # 2: Utakarsha and Ubhayatvat

Upasana # 3: Mithi and Apithi .

Once a nishkama upsana is performed by a manda bhakta his mind will be prepared.

Now, instead of going to fourth pada and fourth matra, Goudapada gives us a break in the following karikas where he talks of the three upasanas.

Karika # 19:

मात्रासंप्रतिपत्तौ स्यादाप्तिसामान्यमेव १९

When identity of Vishva and the A sound is  to be described, the common features between them are “being the first” in their respective positions as well as similarity of all pervasiveness.

In this karika Gaudapada is summarizing the Mantra # 9. Sampratipathi means identified with a particular mantra. In such a meditation, Vishwa is equated to Atvam or Amatra. Vishwa is Akara. Vishwa also includes Virat, Jagrat prapancha and Sthula prapancha. The entire jagrat prapancha is thus visualized on Aa.

Here the common features are:

  1. Aadi: Virat is primary and Aa is also primary.
  2. Apte: Both Aa and Virat are all pervading in nature.

This is upasana #1. Its phalam is mentioned later on by Guadapada.

Karika # 20:

तैजसस्योत्वविज्ञान उत्कर्षो दृश्यते स्फुटम्
मात्रासंप्रतिपत्तौ स्यादुभयत्वं तथाविधम् २०

It is clearly seen that Taijasa is of the same nature as U in AUM, the common features being “superiority”. Another reason for fixing such an identity is “being in the middle”.

It is a summary of mantra # 10. Here upasaka is equating matra U with Taijasa, Hiranyagarbha, sukshma prapancha, invisible worlds; and in doing this, all minds must be visualized. With that the U is taken as a part of Omkara. Two common features here are:

  1. Utkrishaha: In mantra # 10 superiority of subtle universe is described. It is cause of gross universe. Even as mind is more powerful than body, so is U superior to Aa at time of chanting. Aa resolves in U. U is resolution ground of Akara.
  2. Ubhayatvam: means being an intermediary stage or in the middle. Thus, sukshma prapancha is between sthula and pragya. Similarly U is between Aa and M. This is also an aide to meditation.

Phalam will be discussed later.

Karika # 21:

मकारभावे प्राज्ञस्य मानसामान्यमुत्कटम्  
मात्रासंप्रतिपत्तौ तु लयसामान्यमेव २१

The identity of prajna and M is upon the clear common feature that they are the “measure”. The other reason for such an identity is because “ all become one” in both prajna and M.

Here  M is equated with the third pada that is Pragya or Antaryami, or Karana prapancha or the Universe in its unmanifest form. Before big bang too there was a condensed universe, an unmanifest universe. This is to be visualized on sound M. To aide with this meditation two common features were described.

  1. Mithi: Also called Manam in karika, meaning measure. Sthula, sukshma prapancha enter the measure and then come out of it as well. Utkatam means evident. Measure-ness.
  2. Laya samanya; Gaudapada uses laya instead of Apithi as used in mantra # 11. Laya is resolution ground; Karana Prapancha is also resolution ground and upon dissolution it goes back to its potential state.

Law of conservation of energy is actually described in Upanishad. It says that sthula suskhma parapancha go back to Laya.

Also Aa and U resolve in M. When we say M is resolution ground it is from a practical point of view as technically M cannot be resolution ground; it has to be Aa alone. By nature of Aa it is the material cause of all other sounds, their karanam; as such all have to be resolved back in it alone.

Upanishad is indicating a practical reality that Mm is end of all talking. This is third Upasana prescribed for the unprepared students.

Karika # 22:

त्रिषु धामसु यस्तुल्यं सामान्यं वेत्ति निश्चितः  
पूज्यः सर्वभूतानां वन्द्यश्चैव महामुनिः २२

He who knows without doubt what the common

features are in three states, is worshipped and adored by all beings; and he is indeed the greatest sage.

Normally Upasana is for manda adhikari’s. This may give the student an inferiority complex; hence Gaudapada is trying to boost the student by glorifying the upsaka.

That meditator who clearly knows the equation based on common features in all three upasanas becomes a revered one. The three upsanas correspond to the three states of experience. Thus Akara is Jagrat; U kara is Swapna and M kara is Sushupti. This upasaka becomes a revered person among human beings. He becomes worthy of worship. In our culture Upasakas’s are worshipped. Maha muni means great upasaka. What is phalam of this? Phalam was not described.

Karika # 23:

अकारो नयते विश्वमुकारश्चापि तैजसम्
मकारश्च पुनः प्राज्ञं नामात्रे विद्यते गतिः २३

The sound letter A helps the meditator to attain a well-developed waking personality (vishva). The meditator on U attains a well-developed Taijasa (mind and intellect) and for one who meditates on M reaches Prajna. In the “ soundless” state, after Mkara, there remains no attainment

Therefore this upasana can be practiced as nishkama or sakama upasana. Nishkama makes him ready for Turiyam Gyanam. For Sakama upsaka there also benefits in this life as well as in after life.

Ihaloka Phalam:

As stated by mantra # 9, he will become superior to others and become a common person acceptable to all. For third upasana he will be able to measure and judge. He will become one with God.

Paraloka phalam is not described in Upanishad. Gaudapada says, Akara Upasana does not mean meditating on Akara alone, it means Akara Pradhana Omkara Upasana and how to practice it has not been described. Shankaracharya also does not give importance to upasana.

This upasana will take upasaka after death to Vishwam or Virat Aikyam or oneness with Virat Ishwara. It is like a river merging in ocean. He will lose individuality temporarily until his punyam lasts.

Similarly U kara pradhana Omkara Upasana is when U is equated with Hiranyagarbha. It will lead after death to Taijasa or Hiranyagarbha aikyam. Shikshavalli also describes this aikyam.

Third is M kara pradhana Omkara Upasana will lead after death to Pragya or Antaryami Aikyam. He will merge into God. It is not a Gyani’s merger. Upasaka’s merger lasts only until his punyam and then he starts again while Gyani, after merger, do not come back.

How about Amatra and Turiyam? One who comes to Amatra does not travel after death as he becomes one with Brahman here and now. This is fourth matra.

Let us assume one has practiced this Upasana and prepared the mind for enquiry. How to do the enquiry? What is difference between Upasana and enquiry?

Aa is invoked as sthula prapancha and U is invoked as sukshma prapancha. Normally a word is used to reveal an object. Word is padam and object is padartha. Every padam represents a padartha.

Vedanta asks us to enquire into truth of this, asking us in effect to perform a Vichara.

Padam is a word. Four words are used: Bangle, Chain, Ring and Gold. Each padam must reveal a padartha. Bangle reveals bangle padartha. Ring reveals ring padartha. Chain reveals chain padartha while Gold reveals Gold padartha. Thus four padams reveal four padarthas. But upon enquiry I find gold is substance in front of me, but in the word bangle there is no padartha. Ring also has no padartha, chain too has no padartha. Therefore, upon enquiry three padarthas are dismissed; that is bangle, chain, ring; thus substance is dismissed. Once three padartha’s are negated the corresponding padam’s are also negated as they have no object to reveal. Therefore enquiry leads to dismissal of padartha and later padams as well.

Enquiry leads to resolution of padams and padarthas. So other than Turiyam, the only substratum, all other substances just do not exist. There is no substance called Sthula, Sukshma, Karana Prapancha and correspondingly sthula, sukskma karana Padams are also not there. What is left is Pada padartha vilakshanam or Turiyam. This Turiyam can be represented by silence. So, enquiry leads to dismissing of padam and padartha.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy