Baghawat Geeta, Class 117: Chapter 8 Summary

Swamiji provided a summary of the chapter today. He said this chapter is in the middle section of the Gita. The middle section is from Chapter 7 through chapter 12. Here one of the sadhanas highlighted is Upasana. Upasana is discussed all the way up to chapter 12. It is an important sadhana. It is Saguna Brahma Upasana. It is defined as Saguna Brahma Vishaya Manasa Vyaparah. It is a mental activity. Puja is not Upasana. Puja is a physical activity as such it is a part of Karma Yoga. Japa and Parayana are also part of Karma Yoga. Upasana, however, is a Manasa Vyapara. Upasana is not a mental activity such as say worry. It is a Saguna Brahma Vishaya; or mental activity associated with a God with attributes. This upasana is one of the important topics of Madhyama Shatakam. Two types of upasanas were discussed.

  1. Sakama Upasana performed for Material benefits in this world or other worlds. Going to a higher Loka is also a material benefit. It includes miracles. Miracles are not considered spiritual.
  2. Nishkama Upasana is where one practices meditation without hankering for material benefits. This nishkama upasana is the topic of the middle section. It is meant for inner and spiritual growth. Nishkama upasana is of two types.

First one one is sakama upasana, in which a person practices this for material benefits; either material benefits belonging to this world or the material benefits belonging to the other world. And remember going to higher lokas, also will come under material benefits only because, higher lokas means superior material pleasures. This includes miraculous powers; powers to do miracles; they also will come under material benefits; remember; miracles have nothing to do with spirituality. All this a person can accomplish by practicing sakama upasana.

And there is another form of upasana, which is nishkama upasana, in which a person practices the same meditation, saguna Brahma vishaya manasa vyaparah; but without hankering for material benefit. So without seeking material benefits, a person can practice nishkama upasana. And this nishkama upasana is the primary topic of the middle section. Sri Krishna is not keeping in mind sakama upasana at all in the Gita, he deals with the topic of nishkama upasana primarily. That is an upasana, which is meant for the inner growth of a person; which is meant for the spiritual progress of a person. A person who values spiritual growth more than material accomplishments practises Nishkama upasana; and this Nishkama upasana is divided into two types.

Nishkama Upasana First Type:

In one, a person practices nishkama upasana for a length of time, which will give sufficient spiritual maturity or inner growth or spiritual qualification. The qualifications which are required for Gyana yoga abhyasah; and if a person has acquired those qualifications, known as sadhana cathushtaya sampathi, technically Then he withdraws from nishkama upasana and turns his attention towards Gyana yogaha or Vedanta vichara. Gyana Yoga does not come under upasana.

In what way is Gyana yoga different from upasana? Upasana concentrates on saguna Ishvara; whereas Gyana yoga concentrates upon nirguna Ishvara, the attribute less Brahman; and this nirguna Ishvara is persuaded not by meditation; but through Vedanta sravana manana nidhidhyasana; Gyana yoga means learning from an acharya. Gyana yoga involves Vedanta sravana consistently for a length of time under the guidance of a competent acharya. And this will give the knowledge of nirgunam Brahma or nirguna Ishvara and then by practising mananam, this knowledge is consolidated, made free from all the doubts in the intellect; and by nidhidhyasanam; this nirguna Ishvara Gyanam is assimilated; all these are done in this life itself.

So thus practice nishkama upasana; acquire qualifications, withdraw from nishkama upasana; apply yourselves in vedanta vichara or shravana manana nidhidhyasana and attain nirguna brahma Gyana nishta; and by acquiring Gyana Nishta; a person gets liberation; here and now, which is called sadyomukthihi; or jivan mukthih;

And having attained jivan mukthi and enjoyed the benefit of jivan mukthi, throughout the life, at the end of prarabdha, this Gyani dies and after the death, the Gyani does not have any travel at all; there is no shukla gati; there is no krishna gati; there is no gati at all; Gyani is one with the Lord; here and now. This is one route of nishkama upasana; it is also known as sadyomukthi route or jivan mukthi route.

And this is the niskama upasana topic, which Krishna wants to highlight in the Gita; because he wants all of us to get liberation; here and now; not postponing; for Posthumous benefit. Sri Krishna dwells upon that; and therefore nishkama upasana as a means of jivan mukthi is the primary sadhana, Sri Krishna deals with in the 7th chapter, in the 9th chapter, in the 10th, in the 11th and in the 12th also. Whereas in the 8th chapter alone, in the odd man out chapter, the unique and peculiar chapter, Sri Krishna deals with nishkama upasana of another type.

Nishkama Upasana, Second type:

Here a person practices nishkama Ishvara upasana or meditation; he does not want any material benefit other than moksha; and the difference is he continues nishkama upasana throughout the life. Whereas the other person practices nishkama upasana and changes the direction and comes Gyana yoga; whereas in the second type, a person does not come to nirguna Ishvara Gyanam at all; he does not come to Vedanta sravanam manana etc.; Why, whatever be the reason; either he feels he has not qualified enough to think of nirgunam or he does not get an acharya for nirguna Ishvara vichara or for some other problem; a person continues nishkama upasana throughout the life; and because of that his mind is imbued with Ishvara chintha in the form Rama, Krishna or Devi and naturally at the time of death also, his mind thinks of only God; because what you value most in life is the one remembered at the time of death.

So, technically he is an Agyani but nevertheless a nishkama Upasaka. So, remembering God at time of death, is the topic of chapter 8. He does not get liberation here. He travels through shukla gathi to Brahma Loka. There he changes track to Nirguna Ishwara Upasana. Brahmaji himself teaches him. He gets liberation there. This route is called Krama Mukti and it is the topic of chapter 8. Sri Krishna is not suggesting this path to us. He prefers following the jivan mukti route. Therefore chapter 8 can also be called Krama Mukti Chapter. With this background we have to study this chapter.

Shlokas 1-4: Sri Krishna answers questions of Arjuna. Arjuna asked seven questions in Chapter 7. The questions were:

  1. What is Brahman?
  2. What is Adhyatmam?
  3. What is Karma? While dictionary meaning of word is action, what does it mean here?
  4. What is adhibhutam?
  5. What is adhidaivam?
  6. Who or what is Adhiyagna?

6.b. How does Adhiyagna reside in the body; a side question.

7.a. What is significance of remembering god at time of death?

7.b. How can one remember god at time of death?

The seven questions are described in chapter 7, shlokas 7.29 and 7.30.

First six questions were answered in brief answers in shlokas 1 and 2.

Adhyatmam and Brahman are one and same that is the consciousness principle. Two names come from different angles of observation; just like a person is a father, brother, husband etc depending on the relationship. Person is same, however, he is called by different titles.

Thus one consciousness from an individual level is adhyatmam. Same consciousness from macro level is called Brahman.

Adhibhutam is the material universe made of the five elements or the pancha bhutas.

Then adhi daivam; is the hiranyagarbha tatvam or the total mind, governing the material universe. Just as the individual body is governed by the individual mind, and it is your mind that is driving this body; Similarly the total adibhutham is governed by the total mind; which is called hiranyagarba tatvam; which is called adhidaivam.

Adhiyagnam is Ishwara Tatvam that is above Hiranyagarbha Tatvam. He is the Karma Phala Data and the one who presides over laws of Karma. He is seated in my own body noting every action of mine.

Karma is responsible for creation and thus also responsible for punyam and papam. One’s sukham and dukham exhaust our punyams and papams. It requires a body to exhaust punyam and papam. Since there are innumerable jivas with their respective and many punyams and papams, is the reason God has created this law of Karma.

Shloka 5-14:

Six topics were addressed in shlokas 1 and 2. Seventh question was then addressed from shloka # 5 to Shloka # 14. This dealt with the significance of remembering god at time of death. Whatever is remembered at time of death shows the personality of the individual. As we grow older our will power gets weaker and weaker. We are dominated by our vasanas and less by our will. Even addiction, the first time you will be strong and you can say no; but once you don’t say no, a vasana forms in form of samskara and you will become weaker. This goes on and on and you will become weaker and weaker with addiction. In AAA they say surrender to God.

As we grow older our habits become stronger than our will power. Our final thoughts are determined by our lifestyle. The last thought is an indication of my lifestyle. Significantly it also determines my next janma as well. Since our will is weak and Vasanas strong; we need to develop good vasanas starting now. So, therefore what you read; what you utter, what you see, and the people that you move with; should all be noble and good, so that they will generate shubha vasanas.

Only them our subconscious mind will be saturated with mangala samaskaras. This way, even in a comatose mind, there will be Shubha Vasana. This will lead to Ishwara prapthihi.

Let everything you do including your satsang help you. Choose even the company you keep carefully. Initially this will be an effort but gradually it will become a habit.

You can use any symbol or Devata (alambanam). One can even use Omkara. The symbol is used to remember god through out life. In such a person, at time of death, his mind withdraws and he thinks of God and then dies. Nishkama Upasaka remembers god effortlessly. This we saw till shloka # 14.

Shlokas # 15-22:

Human beings have two types of goals. First goal is God himself; and the second goal is the world that is other than god. God symbolizes immortality, security, peace and happiness. Hence we say Achytayanamaha that means one who does not slip from immortality. If I chose any other goal than god keep in mind that it is risky. The object of your goal may leave me or I may leave it, at any time.

All the 14 lokas and the higher positions will also come under time and space and therefore there is nothing wrong in using them; nothing wrong in handling them; but don’t depend on them. For security and peace depend upon Ishwara. These two goals known as Shreyas and Preyas were discussed in shlokas # 15 through 22.

Shlokas 23-27:

Two types of paths leading to two types of goals were discussed.

Krishna Gathi: leads to finite goals; it will provide you with enjoyment but you will have to return from some higher loka than Brahma loka.

Shukla Gathi: takes one to Brahma Loka, where he gets Gyanam which in turn leads one to Krama mukti.

One who goes through Krishna gathi is a Karmi or a ritualist. These rituals can include Pancha Maha Yagna, social service and all such activities.

One who travels the Shukla gathi meanwhile is a Nishkama upasaka and he attains god in the form of Krama mukti.

In all this we are only discussing a Karmi or Upasaka. We have not included Gyani in this discussion. So, we are talking about an Agyani Karmi or an Agyani Upasaka. Gyani has been excluded from chapter 8.

Shloka # 28: concludes the chapter. Between karma and upasana, Sri Krishna says, upasana is better as it gives Krama mukti after death. A Karmi, however will not get any mukti. So, Arjuna! choose Upasana, says Sri Krishna.

Sri Krishna then glorifies the Nishkama Upasaka Yogi. This chapter is called Akshara Brahma Yoga.

Take away:

What you read; what you utter, what you see, and the people that you move with; should all be noble and good, so that they will generate shubha vasanas.

Ram Ramaswamy




Baghawat Geeta, Class 116: Chapter 8, Verses 23 to 28

Shloka # 22:

पुरुषः परः पार्थ भक्त्या लभ्यस्त्वनन्यया
यस्यान्तःस्थानि भूतानि येन सर्वमिदं ततम्।।8.22।।

 The supreme Spirit, O Arjuna! may be won by means of unswerving devotion-the Spirit in whom all beings dwell and by whom all this is pervaded.

Continuing his teaching Swamiji said, Sri Krishna made a comparative and contrasting study of two possible destinations for a human being. Although one can have many goals including the four purusharthas, Sri Krishna compressed all those goals into two types. One is an infinite goal while the other is a finite goal. Every goal is finite or infinite. Even dharma, artha, kama moksha are finite. Because dharma means punyam and any amount of puṇyam you acquire, it is born out of finite actions. Wealth accumulated is finite; Kama that includes all forms of entertainment is also finite. The 14 Lokas including Brahma loka, even Brahmaji himself, are all finite. They may have a long duration of existence, but nevertheless they are finite. Even the sun will explode one day showing its finite existence.

Finite goals can also be called anatama while infinite goal can be termed as atma or god himself. God is sashvatham everything else is ashashvatham. Intelligent person must see god alone. So choose god alone as your goal. This is what Krishna’s advice or teaching is. And to drive home this point, he just discussed this elaborately from shloka’s #15 through # 22.

And when we say God is the destination, initially we present God as a person, situated in some loka, like Vaikuntha or Kailasa. However, Sri Krishna wants to remove that idea because, if God is a person located in a place, even God will come under finite goal, bound by time and space. Anything not bound by space and time has to be formless. So, God is the formless consciousness principle. God is neither matter nor energy. If god is energy it cannot be transformed. However, both mechanical energy and electrical energy are all inter transformable; meaning it is part of time. So, God is neither matter nor energy; God is the witness consciousness that witnesses change. It itself is changeless. It is infinite. It should be your destination.

Shloka # 23:

यत्र काले त्वनावृत्तिमावृत्तिं चैव योगिनः
प्रयाता यान्ति तं कालं वक्ष्यामि भरतर्षभ।।8.23।।

Best of Bharata Princes! I shall declare the time departing in which, the Yogins do not return and also that, departing in which, they return.

Having talked about two destinations from shloka 23 onwards Sri Krishna now talks about two types of paths that lead to the two types of goals. A route is required to reach a destination. So, we have two margas. This also means there are two types of travellers travelling the two routes to two different destinations. Shloka # 23 through # 27 discuss the two margas then the two travellers.

In the shloka Kala means marga. Yogin means traveller or seeker. Yanti means reaches. Anavrthi means infinite goal; it is a goal from which one does not return. The other goal is called Avrithi, where they go and return. Avrithi is a finite goal. These two margas, I shall teach, O Arjuna, says Sri Krishna.

The two margas are:

Shulka Marga: Bright path

Krishna marga: Gloomy path. In this path one enjoys pleasures of another world and then returns. It is known as Devayanam or Krishnayanam.

Shloka # 24:

अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम्
तत्र प्रयाता गच्छन्ति ब्रह्म ब्रह्मविदो जनाः।।8.24।।

The fire, light, day, the bright fortnight, the six months of the northern solar movements, departing in time marked by these, Brahman-knowers reach Brahman.

Sri Krishna defines Shukla Gathi or Devayanam here. Those who go through shukla marga attain God or Krama mukti. To attain karma mukti one goes first to Brahma loka, gets Gyanam there and then gets liberation. The nature of shukla marga is now described. Vedas talk of Shukla and Krishna margas. Brahmasutra provides greater details of both these paths. There are guides, devatas, to help travellers in these paths. They take you to a particular destination and hand you off to another guide. Who are these devatas? They are: Agni, Jyoti, Ahaha, Shukla and Uttarayanam. These are the five devatas for Shukla marga.

Uttarayanam is the six-month period when sun travels north. Devata here means the intelligent principle governing laws of nature. All devatas put together is Hiranyagarbha Tatvam. These five devatas are the guides.

Who is the traveller? They are special people entitled to this travel. They are Saguna Brahma Upasakas or worshippers of God with attributes. Ritualists or Karmi’s don’t get to travel in this marga.

A Gyani will also not get to travel this path because he gets his liberation here itself. A Gyani does not need Krama mukti. The karmi, ritualist, does not get any mukti, jivan or krama. So, the route is shukla gathi and the traveller is also known.

Shloka # 25:

धूमो रात्रिस्तथा कृष्णः षण्मासा दक्षिणायनम्
तत्र चान्द्रमसं ज्योतिर्योगी प्राप्य निवर्तते।।8.25।।

Smoke, night, the dark (fortnight) the six months of the sun’s southern course-passing away during time marked by these, the Yogin reaches the lunar light and returns.

In shloka:

Tatra means the second path or Krishna marga.

Yogi means Karmi or ritualist; they don’t practice upasanas. They obtain punyams of a lower quality. Upasana gives the highest quality of punyam, as mental sadhana is more difficult. Karmi reaches swarga loka or Chandra loka that are lower than Brahma Loka (satya loka).

The guides here are: Dhuma Devata (smoke); Ratri devata; Krishna paksha devata and Dakshinayana Devata. More devatas are cited by Chandogya Upanishad to take one to Swargaloka.

Why is swarga loka path a dark one? Here he will go and enjoy, but once punyam is over he has to come back to this world. Even thinking of his return adds to his misery. The traveller here is a karmi or a ritualist.

Shloka # 26:

शुक्लकृष्णे गती ह्येते जगतः शाश्वते मते
एकया यात्यनावृत्तिमन्ययाऽऽवर्तते पुनः।।8.26।।

These two are indeed the light and dark courses held to be eternal for the world. By means of the first one goes and does not return; by the other one comes back again.

 Sri Krishna is gives the names of the paths here. The two paths are known as Shukla gathi and Krishna gathi. When were the two roads created? They were created with the creation of the universe and vedas when the Karma Upasana teaching came down, as did human beings. With this the sadhaka also came into being, as did the two paths. So, they are all eternal until next pralayam. They are as eternal as the universe. A person going via shukla gathi will obtain Krama Mukti also known as anavrithi.

Through Krishna gathi one goes to Swarga loka due to his punyam; he will however have to return. The two paths have been detailed in the Brahma sutra.

The previous two shlokas have some confusing aspects. In the previous two shlokas, Sri Krishna mentions uttarayanam and shukla paksha, and day-time and Sri Krishna says whoever dies in those times, a person will go to karma mukthi. So the confusion that can come is we may think the time of death will determine whether we will get shukla gati or Krishna gati.

Similarly if you study the 25th shloka, it appears as though if you die in dakshinayanam, Krishna paksha or nighttime, it appears as though you will get Krishna gati. Therefore it appears as though the time of death will determine the direction of travel because the word kala is used there.

Brahma sutra however clarifies by saying that time of death does not determine direction of journey; rather it is quality of death that determines which route one takes. For any confusion in understanding the Gita, Brahma sutra’s interpretation is considered the final word.

Shloka # 27:

नैते सृती पार्थ जानन्योगी मुह्यति कश्चन
तस्मात्सर्वेषु कालेषु योगयुक्तो भवार्जुन।।8.27।।

Knowing these courses, Arjuna no Yogin falls into delusion. Therefore, at all times apply yourself to Yoga.

 Sri Krishna says, I have talked about two paths and two travellers. Knowing the difference between the two margas a Yogi, an intelligent seeker, a viveki, is never confused with respect to the path.

O Arjuna I assure, you are an intelligent seeker; so become an upsaka or take the path of upsana. Continue with karma but also perform Saguna Ishwara Upasana.

Yoga in shloka means Saguna Ishwara Upasana. Between Karma and Upasana choose upasana. Keep in mind Gyanam is still superior to both Karma and Upasana. It is, however, not discussed in chapter # 8.

Gyanam comes back in Chapter # 9. With this the discussion on this topic has concluded. Now Sri Krishna glorifies God as the destination.

Shloka # 28:

वेदेषु यज्ञेषु तपःसु चैव
दानेषु यत्पुण्यफलं प्रदिष्टम्
अत्येति तत्सर्वमिदं विदित्वा
योगी परं स्थानमुपैति चाद्यम्।।8.28।।

The meritorious fruits (of learning) the Vedas, of sacrifices, penances and gifts-all these the Yogin transcends by knowing this, and he also reaches the supreme Primal State.

Yogi Idam Sarvam in shloka means Saguna Ishwara Upasaka. Having understood the teaching, this upsaka votes for Krama mukti and attains God.

Here God is described as Param adhyam sthanam; the supreme and beginning less abode; or destination; So adhyam means sarva karanam; param means the highest and sthanam means destination, which is none other than nitya Ishwaram upaiti.

What is glory of Nithya Ishwara? It is greater than all karma phalam’s including Veda parayanam, rituals, vows, charity and many more such karmas.  Veda promises punya phalam. However, Upsana phalam transcends all these karma phalams. Upasana gets God, so take to saguna Ishwara Upasana. So, O Arjuna! remember God at time of death, says Sri Krishna. With this the seventh question of Arjuna also has been answered.

So thus is concluded the 8th chapter titled, aksharam brahma yoga. Better title for this chapter might have been prayanakala smarana yoga. In some books, this chapter is titled, Taraka Brahma yoga. They are all acceptable.


Ram Ramaswamy




Bhagawat Geeta, Class 115: Chapter 8, Verses 18 to 22

Greetings All,

अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्तयः सर्वाः प्रभवन्त्यहरागमे
रात्र्यागमे प्रलीयन्ते तत्रैवाव्यक्तसंज्ञके।।8.18

At break of day, all individuals are born of the Unmanifest; when night falls, they are dissolved in the same Unmanifest.

Continuing his teaching Swamiji said, from shloka # 15 to shloka # 22, Sri Krishna is comparing two forms of human goals.

One attainable through karma through a  varieties of actions, loukika and vaidika; scriptural and non-scriptural; secular and religious. They can give one set of results and the other type of goal attainable is through Nishkama upasana.

Sri Krishna wants to point out that Karma phalam is finite while upasana phalam is infinite. We are not comparing gyanam to any other sadhana here. Here comparison is between karma phalam and upasana phalam. Upasana phalam is superior to karma phalam. Karma can give all types of results upto Brahma loka but they are all finite in nature. Nishkama Upasana gives one Krama Mukti, which is an infinite result.

Therefore, karma phalam is parichinnam whereas Nishkama upasana phalam, krama mukthi, is aparichinna. This is the idea Sri Krishna wants to convey through the shlokas beginning from the 15th to 22nd.

While talking of material results, the highest goal possible, within time and space, is Brahma Loka prapthihi, which is also finite.  Sri Krishna admits that while Brahmaji’s life is a long one even he finally faces an end. He spoke about one day of Brahmaji as being 2000 Chatur Yugas. It appears as though it is infinite, while in reality it too is finite.

Sri Krishna gives some incidental information now. When Brahmaji’s day starts, creation comes into being. When he goes to sleep creation goes into an unmanifest condition. Similar process plays out with an individual as well. When he wakes up everything rises. And when he goes to sleep his private world is resolved. This is known as Laya.

In Brahmaji’s world, objective world rises and resolves. In shloka # 18 all Vyaktas arise from Avyakta condition. They were resting in Brahmaji in a potential form.

We   also experience this through our dream world every day. We throw our dream world from our own mind; our today’s dream is potentially there in our mind in form of Vasanas and impressions. We throw out the dream-space; dreamtime and dream objects and we have duration for the dream as well. In the same way, with Brahmaji, he withholds the creation and again throws them out. And that form withheld by Brahmaji is called avyaktam.

Similar idea was discussed in chapter 2 as well. Thus we learn that the universe is never created by anybody. Creation is wrong word to use; nothing is created or destroyed. This applies to the creation of the world as well.  So the question of why god created does not arise for us. For us, the world is there eternally. Nobody created the world. It is against law of conservation of energy. Thus the word creation must be replaced by the word manifestation.  The world was always there, God did not create; it was there in potential form; and the potential matter; the potential world in time acted upon by time, undergoes a modification and the unmanifest, now modified, becomes manifest.

Time is an integral part of matter and creation. Matter and time cannot be separated. They are inseparable. That is the reason we do not know about time before the big bang.

With time everything goes back into unmanifest condition then it comes back as manifest. This cycle of manifest and unmanifest is an eternal process. So, unmanifest does not mean an end of the world.

Shloka # 19:

भूतग्रामः एवायं भूत्वा भूत्वा प्रलीयते
रात्र्यागमेऽवशः पार्थ प्रभवत्यहरागमे।।8.19।।

This same host of beings after repeated births, get dissolved, helplessly, O Arjuna! at the time of nightfall and are born at day break.

 If universe goes to unmanifest and then again manifests, what happens to all jivas?

Sri Krishna says the individual will also have the same destiny. They also will go to unmanifest condition; in which all the Jivas will remain potentially inactive, dormant, like the hibernation of some animals; we all will go back to hibernation. And after remaining in potential form for many yugas; again the jivas will emerge with their own karmas, punyam and papam intact.

How will we remain in pralayam? God has given us a simulated experience. We get a taste of it when we go to sleep. In sleep, our ego gets resolved and it remains dormant without destruction.

Citing an example, suppose in tonight’s sleep, all the 8th chapter knowledge was destroyed, then next class I have to again start with the same topic. But how am I able to continue with the same topic? Because, during sleep, your knowledge is not destroyed, it goes to a potential condition. In the same way, during pralaya, all the Jivas go to their potential condition and again come back in the next srishti.

The same group of Jivas will go dormant, but will come back again and again in an eternal process. Thus, no new jiva is created. The question comes up, if no new jiva is created why is there a population explosion? When we think of jivas we tend to think of human beings alone. In reality jivas include all beings including human, animal, plants, insects, lokas, asuras, devas etc. All of them put together, the number remains same as per our scriptures.

Swami Chinmayananda used to say; previously there were many forests with animals. They were hunted and killed. They all were converted to human beings.

New Jivas can’t be created. Even if one can be created what type of body should it get? A Jiva has to have past karmas. Only based on its past karma a body comes up. If there is no past karma available on what basis will a new body come into being? Remember the body is not determined by Bhagavan’s wish; the body is determined by purvakarma; a fresh jiva will never have a purva karma; therefore it is not possible. And this defect is called krita akrita dosha.

If a fresh jiva cant be created, when were we created first and what was its basis? We were never created; we are anadi. Same jiva remains and goes through the manifesting and unmanifesting cycle.  If it is cyclic process why not call it a merry go round. In a merry go round you can get out. Here, in this cycle, one can’t get out, one is a helpless being, Avashaha. Whether I like it or not I have to die. Thus, mortality can’t be escaped so long as you choose time bound results.

Shloka # 20:

परस्तस्मात्तु भावोऽन्योऽव्यक्तोऽव्यक्तात्सनातनः
यः सर्वेषु भूतेषु नश्यत्सु विनश्यति।।8.20।।

But beyond that Unmanifest is another eternal Unmanifest Being; It perishes not (even) when all beings perish.

Up to the previous verse, Krishna has talked about all the finite result, which will come under the field of matter; and any result which falls within matter, is bound by time and therefore it will have two conditions; manifest and unmanifest. In Sanskrit, it is called manifest matter and unmanifest matter, which you may call energy. So energy becomes matter, and matter becomes energy and again energy becomes matter.

There is another goal a human can achieve beyond this cycle of karya and karana prapancha, vyakta avyakta prapancha, where maya becomes the world and then world becomes Maya. They both exist within time. There is another condition known as Unmanifest # 2 also known as Consciousness principle. It is the witness of unmanifest and manifest condition of matter. That witness consciousness does not fall within the witnessed field because the observer is different from and beyond the observed.

To understand this, in the waking state, material world, time and space are experienced. In dream too I experience a world conditioned by time and space.

When I go to the sleep state, the whole material world is resolved; and the time and space also go to unmanifest condition; and there is total blankness; but even at that time, there is someone who is aware of that condition. Who is aware of that; I am aware; how do you know, I am aware; because when I wake up, I am able to talk about the blank state, that means I was continuing, unchangeably, even when the duality came and the duality got resolved, I remained unaffected by that. This observer of the matter, this observer of the change, is the changeless consciousness principle, which is beyond time and space. Consciousness does not fall within time. Consciousness does not fall within space.

It is beyond time and space.

Consciousness therefore does not fall within matter and therefore consciousness does not fall within the physical and the chemical laws.  That is reason the scientists are struggling to understand Consciousness; the physical and chemical laws do not appear to apply to it. It does not follow physical and chemical laws. Therefore, scientists are not able to understand it. Some scientists have started saying consciousness is beyond these laws and cannot be located. Only something in space can be located. Who is this consciousness? It is the witness consciousness. It is God, says Sri Krishna. It is Satyam, Gyanam, Anantam Brahman.

What about various forms attributed to God? A gross mind cannot grasp the subtle consciousness, which is beyond space and time.

Therefore until the intellect gets sufficiently sensitized, until it is sufficiently prepared, we have to attribute a form. We have to worship form. Ultimately God is Shudha Chaitanya Swarupam. O Arjuna! Become one with this God.

And O Arjuna, I want to you to discover oneness with that God. That is the aim of all religious and spiritual struggles.

One, avyaktha is nothing but unmanifest matter; other than that unmanifest matter, there is something else, which is a third entity. So the three entities are:

1) manifest matter No.1;

2) unmanifest matter No.2; you may call it energy and

3) 3rd one is consciousness, which is beyond manifest and unmanifest matter.

These three principles exist. Consciousness is known as Sanatana, one not affected by time. It witnesses time, its arrival and dissolution without being affected by time. Hence it is called immortal or timeless. Where is it present? It does not perish even when all beings perish through un-manifestation. Its location—it does not have a location; rather time and space are located in consciousness.

A God is located in space is the basis for the question where is god? It cannot be answered.

In field of god, cause and effect do not enter. So you cannot ask the when, where, why, how etc in relation to God, all these questions can be answered only with regard to a thing, which are time, space and causality

If you remember Kathopanishad’s definition of

Brahman; it is one which is beyond the concept of causality; so, we have to go to that Brahman. When we say go, it is again a problem, because go is a concept in time, space and travel. That is why any word you use in Vedanta, you get trapped; because intellect can function only in the field of time space and causality; that is why

we say it is a matter to be understood.

Shloka # 21:

अव्यक्तोऽक्षर इत्युक्तस्तमाहुः परमां गतिम्
यं प्राप्य निवर्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम।।8.21।।

The Unmanifest is said to be “the imperishable”; they say that He is the supreme goal. My supreme abode is that, attaining which none returns.

Sri Krishna talks more about God, the limitless goal; the real goal of life, which is worth attempting; which is  avyaktha No.2 mentioned in the previous verse. This avyaktha No.2 mentioned in the previous verse is the Consciousness principle; and this consciousness or chaitanyam is also known in the scriptures as akshara.

It is also known as Akshara, the imperishable or timeless. This word is used in Mundako Upanishad.

Mundako Upanishad calls consciousness as aksharam and defines it as: colorless, formless, smell-less; tasteless; touch-less; etc.

Accomplishing such a Brahman is the real goal. Only then you go beyond time and space. Space is within time. Liberation does not mean going to a place. It is going to Brahman, reaching which one does not return.

How to reach Brahman? There is no travel required to reach Brahman. It is possible only through wisdom. It was never away from me. It is “I” myself. So you reach Brahman in the form of claiming Brahman as myself.

Through knowledge you do not reach Brahman,

Through knowledge you drop the notion that Brahman is away.  So all these are the important fundamentals of Vedanta, which you have to reflect upon and it is about reaching one from whom one never returns.

Sri Krishna, Rama etc are my inferior nature or Apara Prakriti. Consciousness is Para Prakriti. Start with AP then one day goes to PP.

Shloka # 22:

पुरुषः परः पार्थ भक्त्या लभ्यस्त्वनन्यया
यस्यान्तःस्थानि भूतानि येन सर्वमिदं ततम्।।8.22।।

The supreme Spirit, O Arjuna! may be won by means of unswerving devotion-the Spirit in whom all beings dwell and by whom all this is pervaded.

O Partha! So this avyaktha No.2; this consciousness

principle is called Para purusha; So he is the supreme purusha; supreme Brahman, the highest reality; the absolute truth. I have given two meanings of the word

purusha. One is that it is the absolute Brahman in which all beings rest.  The other is the idea that Brahman does not exist within the creation rather the whole creation rests in that Brahman.

Purushsa is a description of nature of Brahman.

In him alone all beings rest. By this Consciousness whole creation is pervaded. If anything exists, consciousness must be there. To know it exists, the being requires consciousness. Existence presupposes knowledge; it pre-supposes consciousness. So, this consciousness pervades whole creation. Sri Krishna feels this may be too high a matter to understand. Don’t get disheartened, he says. What is required is sincere desire to get this knowledge.

So, Sri Krishna says, You can go to nirgunam brahma by your Nishkama bhakthi; once you understand that alone is the ultimate goal; because anything else falls within domain of time and space and therefore mortality; I am no more interested in mortality and the tyranny of time. But once you have understood tyranny of time, and once you are sincerely devoted to the timeless Brahman, you are called a Nishkama bhaktha; or a mumukshu; and with this sincere desire, you continue your saguna bhakthi; sooner or later, you will get the qualifications required for that nirguna bhakthi; therefore he says that Brahman is attainable.

So with this Sri Krishna completes his comparative study of God as higher goal and world as the lower goal, and an intelligent person would vote for god and not for

world and if you vote for God you become a Nishkama upasaka.

Take away:

  1. The world was always there, God did not create; it was there in potential form; and the potential matter; the potential world in time acted upon by time, undergoes a modification and the unmanifest, now modified, becomes manifest.
  2. The same group of Jivas will go dormant, but will come back again and again in an eternal process. Thus, no new jiva is created.
  3. Nothing is created or destroyed. Thus the word creation must be replaced by the word manifestation.
  4. Through knowledge you do not reach Brahman;

Through knowledge you drop the notion that Brahman is away.

Ram Ramaswamy

Bhawat Geeta Class 114: Chapter 8, Verses 12 to 18

Shloka # 12:

सर्वद्वाराणि संयम्य मनो हृदि निरुध्य
मूर्ध्न्याधायात्मनः प्राणमास्थितो योगधारणाम्।।8.12।।

Controlling all gateways of the senses, confining the mind in the heart, fixing the life breath in the crown and intent on the maintenance of Yoga.

Continuing his teaching Swamiji said, from shloka # 6 onwards, of chapter # 8, Sri Krishna has been answering Arjuna’s questions regarding the method, significance and benefits of remembering god at time of death. Ishwara smaranam at time of death requires a person to be a Nishkama upasaka; upasaka means the one who practices meditation on Ishwara with attributes; therefore we say saguna upasaka.

Upasaka is a meditator on god who recognizes that his highest goal is Ishwara alone. Finite form Ishwara symbolizes infinite God. Symbol is representation of god. We know symbol is finite. Facing this finite symbol he considers the infinite god as goal of life. God alone is Sat. Everything else is Tamas.

He considers that infinite God as the primary goal of life. Thus we have the shloka:

Asatoma sad gamaya;

everything else other than God

is asat, God alone is Sat;

Tamasomaya jyotirgamaya;

everything other than God is tamas; God alone is jyothihi; and

Mrythoma amrutham gamaya;

everything other than God is mruthyu means mortality; God alone represents immortality.

Such a person is a nishkaama upasaka. He remembers god at time of death. As a person thinks so he becomes. Nishkama Upasaka thinks of god and he becomes one with god. This Upasaka then goes to Brahma loka and gets nirguna upasana gyanam. This is known as Krama Mukti.

Even though infinite god is one, the symbols representing him are finite and can be many. Scriptures give us many symbols such as Rama Krishna etc. There are also Pratika symbols such as fire, lingam, Omkara etc. Omkara is a Pratika alambanam. Upasaka through Omkara remembers God. At time of death too he remembers Om and dies. Some others may remember Rama or Krishna as well at time of death.

Citing a story, a man was about to die. Goddess Parvati wanted to help him. She requested God Shiva to help him. Shiva said that man did not need any help. But upon Parvati’s insistence Shiva agreed to help. He said if man remembers amma, it would mean he remembered parvati and if he remembers appa it will mean he remembered Shiva. Unfortunately at time of death the man said Ayyo and died. Shiva told parvathi that human beings are like that. Even if you want to rescue them they wont allow it.

 Shloka # 13:

ओमित्येकाक्षरं ब्रह्म व्याहरन्मामनुस्मरन्
यः प्रयाति त्यजन्देहं याति परमां गतिम्।।8.13।।

Uttering the monosyllable AUM representing Brahman and remembering Me, whoso goes forth leaving the body, he proceeds to the highest goal.

 What does this Nishkama Omakra Upasaka do at the time of death? Since he has not come to Vedanta Gyanam, Vedanta considers him an Agyani.

Even though he is a very informed person, with regard to all other things, even though he is well informed with regard to upasana, he is ignorant with regard to the essential oneness between the jivatma and paramatma. And if he has that knowledge, he need not bother about krama mukthi at all; because with this knowledge itself liberation is guaranteed here and now.

This Agyani Nishkama Upasaka uses Omkara to remember God. He remembers Om the Ekaksharam (one syllable), the word revealing Brahman.

Everyone does not have to remember Om; other names such a Rama or Krishna will also do. Through this word he remembers not any finite thing but god alone. Finite things wont accompany him after death only god will. The one who travels with God, nishkama Upasaka, upon death he takes the Shukla Gathi. Sthula sharira is dropped, atma does not travel, and therefore, what travels is the subtle and causal body in which all the punya papa karmas are stored. It is that one which travels, which alone we call the soul or jivaha and therefore this jivaha consisting of sukshma shariram and of course the reflected Consciousness, it travels. And it, the jivatma travels towards the highest goal of life; so the travel is towards krama mukthi. Krama mukti means one goes to brahma loka, and gains knowledge and liberation there.

Shloka # 14:

अनन्यचेताः सततं यो मां स्मरति नित्यशः
तस्याहं सुलभः पार्थ नित्ययुक्तस्य योगिनः।।8.14।।

To the single-minded Yogin in perpetual communion, who constantly remembers Me, I am easily accessible, O Arjuna.

Question comes up how all these things are possible especially at time of death? Sri Krishna says, it is possible by sheer abhyasa or practice. Everything I am associated with belongs to God alone.

This life is a field, an exercising field, to learn loving other people. Not to get security from them; not for taking anything from them; we will only be training in giving care, love, and compassion; and through my training I have been given a nice opportunity.

Shastras say, at time of death hand over everything to God then mind will not dwell on them.

Suppose a person remembers me all the time, and remembers God represents the totality. Personal God is only for convenience, but the personal God also represents the totality. The one who remembers this fact that there is no individual separate from the total, that there is no wave separate from ocean, reaches Me. If wave claims I have a separate existence, it is ignorance on the part of the wave; enlightened wave never claims individuality; it knows that there is nothing separate from ocean; with this awareness, one who remembers regularly this fact is an upasaka. That is why I repeatedly tell this example: a wave is always permanently related to the ocean alone; because it rises from the ocean; it exists in the ocean; and it resolves into the ocean. And not only in this birth; if the wave takes a punarjanma, again it is born out of the ocean; and therefore, wave’s permanent relationship is with the ocean alone. The relationship between any two waves is temporary and incidental. In my preoccupation with incidental relationships, I should not loose sight of the fundamentals.

The fundamental relationship makes me a bhaktha; incidental relationships make me a husband, wife, father, mother, brother, sister, in laws, etc. So, all the roles that you play are incidental; and you have to play those roles, you need not deny them. But remember, that fundamental relationship is with the Lord, the one who remembers this without being distracted by the incidental roles that he plays, the one who remembers this fact in the background like a tampura sruti reaches Me. Just as a musician does not lose sight of tampura sruti, the moment tampura sruti is lost sight of, apa sruti comes; then the music will not be music anymore. And, therefore, in the background, the one who remembers Me, for such a Nishkama upasaka, O Partha, I am the easiest person to remember. Just as a person who is attached to money always remembers money, similarly, if I know the value of god, remembrance is easier. Your mind remembers what you value most in your life.  And in shloka nityayukta means who is ever integrated; ever balanced, ever clear about his priorities in life; and yoginah means one who is a seeker; a upasaka yogi.

Shloka # 15:

मामुपेत्य पुनर्जन्म दुःखालयमशाश्वतम्
नाप्नुवन्ति महात्मानः संसिद्धिं परमां गताः।।8.15।।

Reaching Me and winning supreme perfection, magnanimous sages no longer suffer re-birth-this ephemeral abode of all sufferings.

 With previous shloka Sri Krishna has concluded his answer to Shloka # 7 about remembering god at time of death. Now he discusses some related topics. Till Shloka # 22 he wants to discuss two types of human goals. They are:

  1. God, infinite and spiritual.
  2. World, finite and material.

For an intelligent person God is primary goal. For an indiscriminate person, world is the goal. With respect to finite goals there are three defects or doshas.

  1. Dukha mishritatvam: It means pleasure is mixed with pain of acquisition, preservation and ultimate loss. Each of these steps is a cause of pain.
  2. Atriptikaratvam: One never gets total satisfaction as he feels there is something greater out there. Thus, he has no satisfaction at all. With all the money I still feel I am middle class.
  3. Bandhatvam: Once I depend on external factors I become enslaved by them.

Sri Krishna says God alone represents purnatvam or independence. Because when you choose God as your goal; ultimately you are going to discover God not outside but as tat tvam asi; therefore ultimately God dependence is going to become self-dependence, because God is not going to be away from me. Therefore God represents tripthi; God represents security; God represents fulfillment. So, he is a wiser choice.

Now, a comparison is provided between two goals of God and world. He says: If a person attains Me, the Lord, then what is the advantage?

If one attains Me such a mahatma won’t come to finitude or mortality; he will have no ups or downs in life. I am on top of world. He is a like a floating log. Finitude represents a temple of sorrow. In Ramalaya, Rama is permanently placed in temple, as is Shiva in shivalaya. In world, dukham is permanent placed. Dukham is a source of dissatisfaction that is fleeting and impermanent.

This samsara is not for wise person. They have accomplished the much higher goal of moksha.

Shloka # 16:

आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः पुनरावर्तिनोऽर्जुन
मामुपेत्य तु कौन्तेय पुनर्जन्म विद्यते।।8.16।।

Worlds upto and including Brahma’s are repeatedly won and lost, O Arjuna! but, on reaching Me, there is no more rebirth.

What about heaven?

In some religions heaven is called eternal. Sri Krishna says heaven is also a finite goal. Scriptures say there are six heavens:  bhuvar loka, suvar loka, mahar loka, jana loka, tapo loka, and satya loka. In each higher loka the pleasure goes higher and higher. Brahmaloka is place of highest pleasure. But even Brahmaloka cannot assure Security. You can go there enjoy and come back to the world. All 14 lokas exist within time and space. There is only one beyond time and space, and that is Ishwara. He is un-located. That is the reason you have to travel to Lokas. Even Brahmaji is not permanent. It is only a name of a post. Even he will have to vacate. He too depends on Gyanam for security. O Arjuna, if you come to Me, who is beyond time and space, there is no question of the infinite becoming finite again, therefore, that alone will give you permanent security.

Shloka # 17:

सहस्रयुगपर्यन्तमहर्यद्ब्रह्मणो विदुः
रात्रिं युगसहस्रान्तां तेऽहोरात्रविदो जनाः।।8.17।।

Men who know about day and night hold that a day of Brahma consists of a thousand ages, and that night also is of a thousand ages.

In these shlokas Sri Krishna talks of Brahmaji’s longevity. Brahmaji is different from Brahman. Brahman is timeless God. Brahmaji is finite husband of Goddess Saraswathi. Brahman is nirguna while Brahmaji is saguna.

One Brahmaji day is 2000 human chatur yugas. One Yuga is a measurement of time like a month or year. We have four yugas. They are: krita yuga; threta yuga; dvapara yuga and kaliyugah.

We are in kali yuga. Its duration is 432,000 human years.

Dwapara yuga was double of Kali yuga or 864,000 human years.

Tretayuga was three times kaliyuga or 1,296,000 human years.

Krita Yuga was four times kaliyuga or  1,728,000

Therefore one chatur yuga is a combination of all four yugas or 4,320,000 years.

One day of Brahmaji is 2000 chatyr yugas. After 2000 chatur yugas Brahmaji will tear off his one day. He has 365 days in a year as well. He has 100 years to live. Brahmaji is now 51 years old. We are in first day of his 51 st year. This is 27th or 28th chatur yuga. We can estimate chatur yugas years left.

For 1000 chatur yugas Brahmaji is awake. For 1000 chatur yugas Brahmaji will sleep. In shloka yuga means chatur yuga.

In shloka ahaha means day time or half a day. Those people who have studied scriptures alone know these details. What happens to a day and night of Brahmaji is detailed in next Shloka.

Shloka # 18:

अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्तयः सर्वाः प्रभवन्त्यहरागमे
रात्र्यागमे प्रलीयन्ते तत्रैवाव्यक्तसंज्ञके।।8.18

At break of day, all individuals are born of the Unmanifest; when night falls, they are dissolved in the same Unmanifest.

Brahmaji’s day and night is similar to our day and night. When our day begins our interactions begin. It is an active world of space, time, people interactions, consequences and responses as well. The moment I go to sleep my world of plurality is resolved for me. Emotions are resolved. It is Nirvikapla avastha or undifferentiated state. In my sleep, only my world is resolved. My private world rises and resolves.  For Brahmaji it happens at macro level. When I sleep it is called Laya, at micro level. When Brahmaji sleeps it is called Pralaya, at a macro level. In Pralaya whole creation goes to sleep.

When I sleep my private world goes into dormancy. In Brahmaji it goes into Avyakta avastha. Here all individuals are resolved into unmanifest condition. As per science, matter cannot be created or destroyed. In atomic explosion matter becomes energy; or visible become invisible; like water to vapor. So, too, visible universe becomes an un-manifest condition or it becomes prakriti or Maya. When he wakens, energy becomes matter. Non-duality becomes duality and activity begins again. Out of unmanifest they become manifest. Thus the world goes in a cyclic form of manifestation and un-manifestation; expansion-contraction; evolution-involution. Thus, the whole universe continues in a cyclic form, eternally.

Take away:

Your mind remembers what you value most in your life.

Asatoma sad gamaya;

Tamasomaya jyotirgamaya;

Mrythoma amrutham gamaya;


Ram Ramaswamy




Bhagawat Geeta, Class 113 : Chapter 8, Verses 8 to 12

Shloka # 8:

अभ्यासयोगयुक्तेन चेतसा नान्यगामिना
परमं पुरुषं दिव्यं याति पार्थानुचिन्तयन्।।8.8।।

O Arjuna! Steadily thinking with an unswerving mind, disciplined in the yoga of repeated practice, one proceeds to the supreme, divine Spirit.

Continuing his teaching Swamiji said, Sri Krishna answering the seventh question of Arjuna, from the fifth shloka onwards, is dealing with topic of remembering God at time of death. He is also dealing with Saguna Ishwara Upasanam or meditating on god with attributes. This Upasaka is a nishkama upasaka whose goal in life is spiritual and who has acquired Vairagyam.

And this Nishkama upasaka can take to two different courses of life, one is practising Nishkama upasana for sometime, and thereafter switching over the sadhdana to the vedanta vicharah; or nirguna ishvara gyanam in form of sravanam, mananam and nidhidhyasanam. By performing this upasana one obtains Jivan mukti. This topic of nishkama upasana is however further elaborated in chapter # 9.

Another path for an Upasaka is where he or she continues in Saguna Upasana. Here Upasaka feels he is not qualified enough; or an appropriate acharya was not available to him or due to his poor health etc. So, due to some obstacles he is not able to perform Nirguna Upasana. So, he continues in Saguna Upasana. Sri Krishna says, since this upasaka values Ishwara parpthihi he too remembers god at time of death. He, however, after his death goes to Brahma Loka where he enters into Nirguna Ishwara Upasana. In Brahma Loka he obtains Gyanam and this gyanam is called Krama Mukti. This Krama Mukti is the topic of the current Chapter  8.

How can a person remember god at time of death when my control over my fading senses is weak? Sri Krishna says it will become effortless if your devotion enters and permeates your subconscious mind. So, at time of death, even if conscious mind does not think, subconscious mind will certainly think of god. Swamiji repeated his favorite phrase in this context:

Watch your thoughts; they become the words;

Watch your words, they become your actions;

Watch your action, they become your habit;

Watch your habit; they become your character;

Watch your character, it becomes your destiny.

So therefore an alert life from now itself is called abyhasa yoga. And with a mind which is strengthened by abhyasa yoga, and therefore with an undistracted mind, when a person remembers the Lord, he will attain krama mukthi.

Shloka # 9:

कविं पुराणमनुशासितार
सर्वस्य धातारमचिन्त्यरूप
मादित्यवर्णं तमसः परस्तात्।।8.9।।

Whosoever remembers the wise, ancient Ruler,subtler than subtle, the Upholder of all (things),imponderable of form, resplendent like the sun beyond darkness.

So here Krishna talks about the attributes of the Lord who is remembered by the Nishkama upasaka at the time of death. Each word in the shloka is an attribute describing God. Eight attributes are mentioned. So, here, it looks like the Nishkama Upasaka appears to be in touch with scriptures.

The word Kapi means total mind or omniscient.

The word Puranam means ancient one; one never created; the creator.

The word Anusashithanam: One who gives karma phalam to Jivas according to laws of karma, including moral laws.

The word Anoh aniyamsam means the one who is subtler than even the subtlest atom; which means the one who is not available for any sense organs or any sensory perception. So the one who is beyond shabda, sparsha, rupa, rasa and gandha. So, from this, it is very clear, that a physical form that we attribute to the Lord is only symbolic, like a national flag; the flag is not India; but the flag represents India. Similarly, the form-full God represents the formless reality; the formless beauty; the formless immortality; the formless peace; the formless security, in fact everything that we seek in life that is symbolized as God. These are the things that we seek, peace, we seek, security we seek, fullness we seek, all these are abstract goals; and these abstract goals are concretely symbolized as the physical God; and therefore anoh aniyamsam, whose real nature is formlessness.

The word Sarvasya Dhataram means the one who is the substratum; the support of the entire creation; being the very cause of the creation; just as ocean is the very substratum for all the waves and bubbles, they all rise in the ocean, rest in the ocean, and resolve in the ocean. Similarly, the Lord is vishva-adharam and in vedantic context, we use the word, sadrupam; sattha; the one who is the very existence principle.

In Chandogya Upanishad, the Lord is presented as the very existence principle, which supports all. But to understand the existence principle, we require a subtle intellect and therefore we symbolize the ‘sat’ in a particular form; but existence has no form at all. Therefore sarvasya dhataram;

The word Achintya rupam means one who is incomprehensible, one, who cannot be objectified.

Mind can only study attributes. It cannot study one without attributes; just as a car cannot move in the ocean or a ship on the land; the Mind is not meant for a field without attributes.

God is the subject that objectifies everything; so he can’t be objectified. But God is temporarily objectified in the physical formed god. By stepping through every attribute one reaches the attribute-less god.

For those people who cannot conceive of the attribute-less truth, the Upanishad comes down and presents the attributed God. By stepping through every attribute one reaches the attribute-less god; therefore achintyarupam

The word Adityavarnam means One who is like the sun. In Katho Upanishad it says one sun illuminates everything. Just as one Sun illumines everything, God is that one consciousness, because of which we are conscious of everything else; therefore adityavarnam is the one who is all-illumining consciousness.

Tamasaha Parastat means one who is unaffected by darkness. The difference between sunlight and atma jyoti is that sunlight can’t illuminate darkness. Swami Chinmayananda used to tell a story: somebody told Sun God: There is a beautiful girl, Miss Darkness; so you can get married to her. Therefore the Sun God decided he should meet Miss Darkness; so he asked, where is Miss Darkness; they told him it is on the other side of the earth; so the Sun started running after Miss Darkness. The Sun is still going round and round; that is why we have sunrise and sunset;

Sun can illumine everything, but he can never illumine darkness; that is the limitation of the Sun. Consciousness is, however, a superior light, which can illumine the Darkness as well.  Thus, think, how do you know if it is dark? Because you know it is dark. It is not affected by darkness.

Such a nishkama upasaka meditates upon god including at time of death. Swamiji said this shloka is grammatically incomplete as such we have to add that: he obtains god or krama mukti.

Shloka # 10:

प्रयाणकाले मनसाऽचलेन
भक्त्या युक्तो योगबलेन चैव
भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक्
तं परं पुरुषमुपैति दिव्यम्।।8.10।।

At the hour of departure whoso with steady mind, and with devotion and the power of Yoga, sustains aright the life force between the brows ( and remembers), reaches the Spirit supreme, divine.

 Here Sri Krishna talks of how the Nishkama Upasaka remembers god at time of death. This process is detailed in Katho Upanishad.

At time of death the pancha prana’s are withdrawn to Hridayam; then they are directed to Sushumna Nadi that opens at the top of the head; then Brahmarandram launches prana through shukla gathi to take it to Brahma Loka.

For all these things, he has to prepare. Therefore, he has to bring the prana to a place between the eyebrows; which represents sushumna nadi, because it is supposed to travel through the middle of the head and directly behind the bru deshaha.

How can I withdraw prana, at time of death? Sri Krishna says if a person wants karma mukti, he must not only be a great upasaka but a great yogi as well. A yogi well versed in ashtanga yoga so that he can control prana. There are yogis who can control involuntary muscles. So Sri Krishna says, upasaka must be a yogi to obtain karma mukti.

To obtain jivan mukti one need not be a great yogi. By strength of yoga one can withdraw prana and direct it. He also enjoys a mind, which is very steady and undistracted at time of death. This is possible through the discipline of yoga.

He must be totally devoted to Me. This devotion is powered by yoga by which he can direct the mind towards the Lord.

By such upasana he obtains lord himself. What type of Lord? One who is param purusham divyam or the highest, limitless and is of the nature of consciousness. This leads him to karma mukti.

Shloka # 11:

यदक्षरं वेदविदो वदन्ति
विशन्ति यद्यतयो वीतरागाः
यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति
तत्ते पदं संग्रहेण प्रवक्ष्ये।।8.11।।

That Imperishable which the Veda-knowers set forth, which ascetics,devoid of attachments, enter, and seeking which, they live a life of continence-that goal, briefly, I shall declare to you.

Here, Sri Krishna talks of glories of god.

All Vedic learners learn that the aksharam or ultimate reality is the only source of fullness, happiness etc. Committed seekers reach this ultimate reality.

The word Yataha means Sanyasi, who single-mindedly pursue spiritual goal. Sanyasi need not be an external sanyasi; it is anyone who has turned away from finite goals of life. They understand that everything is Apara Prakriti; that they are not permanent, that they cannot give emotional security. So, they have turned to the infinite. They lead a life of Brahmacharya or committed to study of scriptures.

Word Brahmacharya is Brahma, meaning scriptures and Charya meaning dwelling in them.

Sri Krishna says I shall briefly define the nature of this Ishwara. However, he does so, only in shlokas 20, 21 and 22.

Shloka # 12:

सर्वद्वाराणि संयम्य मनो हृदि निरुध्य
मूर्ध्न्याधायात्मनः प्राणमास्थितो योगधारणाम्।।8.12।।

 Controlling all gateways of the senses, confining the mind in the heart, fixing the life breath in the crown and intent on the maintenance of Yoga.

 God’s nature is formless. It is difficult to conceive this formless god, hence scriptures created alambanam, a concrete symbol. And this alampanaṁ or symbol is of two types; one is called prathima alampanam, and the other is called pratheeka alampanam; prathima alampanaṁ is a symbol, which has got all the limbs or organs like a head, hands, legs etc. where the Lord is personified.

Thus, Sri Rama’s picture is a pratima alambanam. Pratika alambanam, like a shiva linga does not have limbs. Even a flame can be a pratika alambanam even as turmeric powder too is one used to denote Ganesha.

One can choose whichever alambanam suits him or her.

Omkara is also an alambanam. Katho Upanishad says when you visualize god in Omkara it is Omkara upasana. It is a well-known upasana. It is discussed in several Upanishads. So, Sri Krishna also borrows it here in shloka’s # 12 and 13 respectively.

When Sri Krishna talks of Omkara upasana, it is just one of the choices, among several upasanas. The goal here is that one should have a concrete symbol for the abstract god to meditate upon. Then, one should withdraw from one’s sense organs at time of death and bring mind to one’s heart where god is visualized. Shankaracharya says:  “at time of death all yama dutha’s are coming and threatening me and criticizing me for wasting my life. At that time when I am frightened, I am booking you now itself; you should come into my heart and dance in my heart so that Yama duthas run away.” This poem is known as Shivashankara ashtakam.

So, having withdrawn mind and having placed it in the heart, prana should be withdrawn and brought to top of head. At that time mind should be focused. This comes from long practice. This is Omkara Upasana.

Ram Ramaswamy




Bhgawat Geeta Class 112, Chapter 8: Verses 5 to 8

Shloka # 5:

अन्तकाले मामेव स्मरन्मुक्त्वा कलेवरम्
यः प्रयाति मद्भावं याति नास्त्यत्र संशयः।।8.5।।

At the end, whoso departs giving up his body, and remembering Me alone, proceeds to My status; of this there is no doubt.

Continuing his teaching Swamiji said, based upon the last two shlokas of chapter 7 Arjuna raises his seven questions reflected in Shlokas 1 and 2 of this chapter # 8. In shloka’s # 3 and 4 Sri Krishna answers the first six questions.

From the fifth shloka onwards, Sri Krishna answers the seventh question elaborately on the topic of remembrance of god at time of death. This topic is going to be answered in the rest of the chapter # 8. And, by way of answering this question, Sri Krishna is also dealing with Saguna Ishwara Upasanam or meditating upon a god with attributes. Every dhyana shloka, be it on Rama, Krishna, Devi etc., describe the respective god’s attributes. Saguna Upasana can be classified into two types as Saguna and Nishkama. Saguna upasana is for worldly benefits or other than spiritual benefits, or for artha and kama in this life or next.  Miraculous powers also come from such an upasana.

Nishkama upasana is for spiritual growth or obtaining required qualifications and opportunity for moksha. And this nishkama saguna upasana itself can be divided into two types. In one, person practices Nishkama upasana for acquiring all the qualifications for entering into nirguna gyanam. Because we have seen in the 7th chapter that saguna ishwara is not the ultimate reality. Saguna Ishwara is only an empirical vyavaharika satyam or it is also mithya; only the nirguna Ishwara also called para prakrithi in chapter 7, that alone is the ultimate reality; and we have to come to the ultimate nirguna Ishwara.

Thus one can start with Saguna Upasana and the come to nirguna upasana. Nirguna upasana will lead person to nirguna upasana gyanam. This gyanam will result in Sadyo mukti or jivan mukti. Sadyo mukti is instant liberation.

Alternative method:

Saguna Upasana leads to nirguna Upasana. However person is not able to go to nirguna Ishwara. Switching from a god with attributes to a god without attributes is difficult. Nirguna Ishwara enquiry requires a very subtle mind.

So, if the mind is not ready for nirguna ishwara it will not appeal to that person. Then what should that person do? No doubt, he wants moksha; no doubt he wants to become one with God; he does not have interest in any other material goal; he is a nishama purushah; he is a mumukshu purushah; but his mind is not ready for nirguna vicharah.

Sri Krishna offers a solution. He says such a person should continue his Saguna Upasana alone in this life. He should make sure it is a nishkama mumukshu upasana. At time of death he will remember only that which he values most in his or her life. He will remember saguna Ishwara. He won’t get liberation. But because of his intense desire he will go to Brahma Loka. There he will get ideal condition for Nirguna Ishwara Gyanam. Brahmaji himself will impart this knowledge and thus he will attain liberation. This is called Krama Mukti. Therefore a Nishkama upasaka can follow either path. Chapter 8 focuses on Krama Mukti.

Shloka # 5:

The word Yaha in shloka means nishkama saguna upasaka. Suppose he dies and his jiva travels. It is sukshma shariram. Remembering Me alone (saguna Ishwara) he will certainly get karma mukti; of this there is no doubt. Mad Bhava means krama mukti.

Shloka # 6:

यं यं वापि स्मरन्भावं त्यजत्यन्ते कलेवरम्
तं तमेवैति कौन्तेय सदा तद्भावभावितः।।8.6।।

Remembering whatever being one gives up the body at the end, that very being one reaches, O Arjuna! ever confirming to that being.

Suppose a person does not remember god at time of death, what happens to him?

Sri Krishna says, his next janma will depend upon what he thinks at time of death. As the

famous proverb goes; “As a person thinks, so a person becomes”. It is a very very powerful law, which is a fact; it is not a law applicable only after death; but it is a

law applicable within this life itself, as a person thinks, so he becomes.

In this context, Swamiji reminded us of a beautiful proverb which he likes:

Watch your thoughts; they become the words;

Watch your words, they become your actions;

Watch your action, they become your habit;

Watch your habit; they become your character;

Watch your character, it becomes your destiny.

Your destiny is already determined by the thoughts you entertain. Sri Krishna says this rule also applies to next life. Jada Bharata story in Bhagawatham says he got attached to a small deer. His obsession over the deer came up at the time of his death when he was worried as to who would look after his deer. Because of this obsession at time of death, he was born again as a deer.

And this important lesson Krishna imparts in this shloka. Suppose a person drops the physical body at the time of death; remembering various objects in his mind, any particular object, any particular goal in mind, remembering, then, he will certainly attain only such a birth which is in keeping with the person’s thought process. So, Arjuna, remember this is the most important law.

The question comes up if there is a loophole at time of death that one can get around it regarding thinking about god? Sri Krishna says you never know when death will come to you. Thoughts of a person are based upon: his will power and Vasanas (habits, samskaras, impressions). Thoughts in mind are decided by will power or vasana. There is a constant clash between the two. As we grow older vasana becomes more powerful, powered by many years of thinking. Our subconscious mind is saturated with vasanas while our will becomes weaker. At time of death it is very difficult to control thought. So, Sri Krishna says, saturate your vasanas with spiritual thoughts. So preparation for this should start this very moment. Rehearsal for death should start right now.

Sri Krishna discussed this topic although many will not like it. He says constant practice makes subconscious mind divine oriented.

Citing story of Appaya Diskhitar a great devotee, he wanted to find out about subconscious mind. He wanted to find out from our dreams. He drank milk made from erruka tree called errukam milk. Drinking this milk throws one off balance. He told disciples to write down whatever he said when he was not in his senses after drinking this milk. His thought came out as the Unmat- stotram out of his mouth uttered during his dream. It was a great hymn to the Lord Shiva.

Shloka # 7:

तस्मात्सर्वेषु कालेषु मामनुस्मर युध्य

Therefore, at all times, remember Me and fight. Dedicating mind and intellect to Me, rid of all doubts, you will reach Me, indeed.

So Arjuna, my advice to you is, may you always remember Me.

If I remember god all the time when will I have time for my normal duties? Should I become a Sanyasi? How to remember god all the time?

Sri Krishna says, don’t drop your responsibilities. Continue with them. But you also have to fight, Arjuna. He means Arjuna should fulfill his duties as well. How can I do two jobs at the same time; remembering you and fighting?

Conscious mind cannot do two jobs simultaneously. Even when conscious mind is working on a job, in subconscious mind my priority should be clear. Subconscious mind can have Ishwara chintana, while conscious mind can perform work.   It is like a tampura sruthi in background. While singing, tamura sruti will still be maintained.

Citing another example Swamiji says, it is like when one gets down at a platform in a railway station to buy food. The person keeps one eye and ear tuned to any signal as to departure of the train. So, in life one should continue his normal activities while keeping mind alert to the divine as well. Our emotional personality should be focused on God. Learn to emotionally depend upon god rather than on mortals. Remember, a mortal will leave you one day as such are undependable. Love everyone but depend on saguna Ishwara. The Thyagaraja Krithis are all about talking to God.

May you be rationally be convinced; because the physical personal God symbolizes the truth; symbolizes immortality; symbolizes love; symbolizes compassion; symbolizes steadiness. Therefore the physical form we do not say is the ultimate truth; but the physical form represents the highest reality; and that is called the intellectual conviction. Until you understand this abstract truth till then you depend on saguna Ishwara.

This lifestyle will lead you to Me without doubt.

Shloka # 8:

अभ्यासयोगयुक्तेन चेतसा नान्यगामिना
परमं पुरुषं दिव्यं याति पार्थानुचिन्तयन्।।8.8।।

O Arjuna! Steadily thinking with an unswerving mind, disciplined in the yoga of repeated practice, one proceeds to the supreme, divine Spirit.

At time of death an Upasaka remembers God, the highest reality Purushaha.

Purushah, the word has two meanings. One meaning is the one who resides in the heart of everyone; and other is the indweller of all. Puri or pure, means the body, shete means dwells, resides. Puarayati: one who fills whole world; Vidhyam: Chaitanya swarupam.

So Saguna upasaka remembers such a god with the strength of regular practice. It is a mind that is undistracted; with such a mind he remembers Me. Math prodigy Ramanujam at time of death, was asked for his

car’s number. He said it is a number with two cube roots. He was able to do so because of what he valued. So, when you value God, you will remember him and merge into him. Merge here means Krama mukti.

Take away:

  1. Your destiny is already determined by the thoughts you entertain.
  2. At time of death one will remember only that which he values most in his or her life.
  3. Watch your thoughts; they become the words;

Watch your words, they become your actions;

Watch your action, they become your habit;

Watch your habit; they become your character;

Watch your character, it becomes your destiny.

Ram Ramaswamy

Baghawat Geeta, Class 111: Chapter 8, Verses 1 to 5

Starting chapter 8, Swamiji said, this chapter is primarily based upon the last two shlokas of chapter 7. In Chapter 7, in the last two shlokas, Sri Krishna introduced some technical terms without explaining them. They were: Karma, Brahma, Adhyatmam, Adhibhutam, Adhidaivam, and Adhiyajnam. He also mentioned remembering god at the time of death.

The last one naturally creates a curiosity in Arjuna’s mind as to why Sri Krishna should talk about Ishwara smaranam at the time of death. He feels there must be some significance to it. Arjuna, in fact, has a total of seven questions. They are regarding the six technical terms and remembering god at time of death. Chapter 8 is dedicated to answering these seven questions. In answering these seven questions Sri Krishna also introduces saguna ishwara dhyanam. Here, Sri Krishna highlights Sadhana Upasana. In the middle of the Gita upasana is discussed. So, the chapter begins with Arjunas questions.

Shloka # 1:

किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम
अधिभूतं किं प्रोक्तमधिदैवं किमुच्यते।।8.1।।

Arjuna asked the following questions:

  1. What is Brahman?
  2. What is Adhyatmam?
  3. What is Karma? While dictionary meaning of word is action, what does it mean here?
  4. What is adhibhutam?
  5. What is adhidaivam?

Please answer these five questions.

Shloka # 2:

अधियज्ञः कथं कोऽत्र देहेऽस्मिन्मधुसूदन
प्रयाणकाले कथं ज्ञेयोऽसि नियतात्मभिः।।8.2।।

Arjuna continues, O Madhusudhana, Please answer:

  1. Who or what is Adhiyagna?

6.b. How does Adhiyagna reside in the body; a side question.

7.a. What is significance of remembering god at time of death?

7.b. How can one remember god at time of death?

Even living beings can’t remember god, how can I remember god at time of death when all my faculties are fading? Is there a technique? Please teach me Sri Krishna?

How are You to be remembered by committed people, by integrated people and by people with self-control?

There must be a tremendous control over the mind required to remember the Lord at the time of death; therefore how can self-controlled people remember God at the time of death? This is the 7th question regarding antahkala smaranam.

In the shloka, in the word Madhusudhana, Madhu also means karmaphalam. Therefore, Madhusudhana is destroyer of all karmas or one who gives mokhsa.

Shloka # 3:

अक्षरं ब्रह्म परमं स्वभावोऽध्यात्ममुच्यते
भूतभावोद्भवकरो विसर्गः कर्मसंज्ञितः।।8.3।।

What is that Brahman? What is the inner self? What is work? O highest spirit! What is said to be the elements? What is said to be the divinities?

Sri Krishna now answers the questions.

Q 1.What is Brahman?

The imperishable principle aksharam paramam (the highest) is called Brahman.

Why use paramam? Without it the word aksharam can also mean alphabet or a letter. So Brahman is the most supreme aksharam or the ultimate imperishable. The word Kshas means imperishable. In Mandukya Upanishad too, Brahman is called aksharam. What is this imperishable principle? Consciousness is the only entity that is not perishable. Matter is subject to decay and death. AP (apara prakriti) is perishable while PP (para prakriti) or Chaitanya tatvam is not. The very word Brahma means brihat tamatva or a superlatively big entity. Sri Krishna does not elaborate on Brahman as he has described it as Para Prakriti in chapter 7, shloka’s 4-10.

Chapter 8 is also called Aksharam Brahma Yoga as the teaching starts with it.

Q 2. What is Adhyatmam?

The all-pervading consciousness also exists in the individual body as well. Within body it is called Adhyatmam (obtaining within body). Samashti consciousness is called Brahman while same consciousness in a body is called Adhyatmam or inner essence consciousness. Adhyatmam is Jivatma while Brahman is Paramatma. Consciousness is the same; two different words are used, because of two different terms of reference. Citing an example, a man is, from wife’s point of view, a husband; from a child’s point of view, a father; a mother’s point of view, a son.

How can one and the same person be called father, son, grandfather, husband, brother etc? This is called shabda prakriti nimittam. It means, the point of reference, when it differs the name also differs.

Thus, consciousness is called paramatma; consciousness is also called jivatma, depending upon macro and micro point of reference. This answers second question.

Q 3. What is karma?

Visarga in shloka means all activities of human beings who are responsible for future creation. This is karma. Scriptures say creation is not an accident. It is an incident caused by previous factors (karmas).  My physical body is a result of my past karmas. Individual birth is due to individual’s karmas. Humanities’ birth is due to karma of humanity.

In shloka bhutabhava means the insistence of living beings; udbhavakaraha means that which brings about, so bhutabhavodbhavakaraha means that which brings about the existence of every living being.

My karma determines my parentage, my bothers, my sisters, my place of birth etc. My parents got me due to their karma. It is same with a guru and shishya as well.

And therefore what is karma? Srishti karanam is Karma.

So present creation is a result of past creation. Future creations will be a result of this creation. Creation did not come up as a wish of god. He is not responsible for creation. I have asked for it by my good bad and mixed actions. That is why there are 14 Lokas to fulfill all karmas.

We do such terrible action, necessitating a naraka environment; and we also do wonderful actions necessitating a wonderful heaven; and we also manage to mix up necessitating manushya loka. Thus everything is karma ordered and therefore karma is defined as srishti karanam. That is presented here as bhuta bhava udbhavakarah and visargah means action. My own contribution; is called karmasamjnitah. So with this three questions are answered.

Shloka # 4:

 अधिभूतं क्षरो भावः पुरुषश्चाधिदैवतम्
अधियज्ञोऽहमेवात्र देहे देहभृतां वर।।8.4।।

“Elements” constitute perishable existence; the divinities are the Spirit. Thou, best of men! in the body I alone am related to sacrifices.

 Q 4. What is Adhibhutam?

 Any object that is experienced is perishable. All elements, the sun, moon, stars, rivers etc are all physical bodies and are, as such, perishable. The material world is known as adhibhutam.

Q 5. What is adhidaivam?

 It is Hiranyagarbha or total consciousness with total mind and thus total knowledge with a subtle body.  And that hiranyagarbha alone is called a presiding deity from the standpoint of every organ, so the presiding deity of the eye is surya devatha; and the presiding deity of the ears is dig devatha. Thus we have presiding deities for every organ; all these presiding deities put together is called hiranyagarbha; that hiranyagarbha is called adhi daivam.

Q.6: What is adhiyagna?

I myself, or God himself, am adhidavam. What is Ishwara? As per Tatvabodha, it is consciousness associated with Karana prapancha. The whole universe in potential form is Shakti or Maya. Shakti plus consciousness is Ishwara.

Sri Krishna says I am that Ishwara. I am the seed of the universe. And they say after the pralaya, when everything is destroyed, it is said that then on a banana leaf Sri Krishna floats.

What does the water and the banana leaf represent? It is nothing but the seed form of the universe, and Sri Krishna represents the consciousness principle; Consciousness plus potential universe is called Ishwara. In scientific terms consciousness plus basic energy is Ishwara. So with this, the 6th question is also answered.

Where does Ishwara reside?

Sri Krishna answers: O Arjuna, Lord resides in every body. In chapter’s 10 and 18 respectively, Sri Krishna refers to this fact. He is called Narayana since he resides in every being. Explaining the word Narayana, naram means all the living beings. Naram means jeeva samuhaha; and ayanam means the residence; So, Narayanam means every living being is the residence of the Lord.

Every human is a residence of God. He is in pragya rupam in each of us (Tatva bodha).

Why is he called Adiyagnaha?

Adhiyagnah means residing in the heart; because god is associated with every action you take. How is he associated?  Lord is associated with our yagnas, our poojas. He is the receiver of the pooja, as we saw in the 7th chapter. Any pooja done by anyone I receive and for the pooja, I give the karma phalam. Therefore

as the receiver of the pooja and as the giver of the result, I remain in the heart of everyone.

So, do not worry that your good actions are not registered. It is all registered and according to the laws of karma it will also give results.

For a Daivic person every result is due to karma phalam. I am reaping results of my own actions. Non-remembrance of action does not mean non-performance. I have to pay the price for my actions through Adhiyagnaha or Karmaphaladata.

Shloka # 5:

अन्तकाले मामेव स्मरन्मुक्त्वा कलेवरम्
यः प्रयाति मद्भावं याति नास्त्यत्र संशयः।।8.5।।

At the end, whoso departs giving up his body, and remembering Me alone, proceeds to My status; of this there is no doubt.

In Shlokas 3 and 4 Sri Krishna has answered all six questions. Now he answers question # 7. The answer to this question is elaborately discussed till shloka # 28. In this answer he is introducing Ishwara Upasana as well. Ishwara, here is Saguna Ishwara. This god can be meditated upon. This Saguna Ishwara upasana gives two results depending on one’s motive and attitude.

Thus we have:

1) Sakama Saguna Ishwara upasana and

2) Nishkama Saguna Ishwara Upasana.

Saguna Upasana is for material benefits in this world, heaven or in another birth. It can also bestow miraculous powers. Many upsakas are sidhas. Upasana gives some people extraordinary powers. Such siddhas say, on a given day the deity enters them and he (siddha) is able to predict events and suggest parihara. Hundreds of sidhis are enumerated in the puranas, in bhagavatham, related to knowing the past, knowing the future etc., Countless sidhis are mentioned; all are the result of Sakama Saguna Ishwara Upasanam.

Nishkama Saguna Ishwara Upasana:  This upasana does not result in material benefits. It provides spiritual benefits.

Thus, one devotee prays: Oh Lord I am remembering you not for artha; not for kama; not for punyam; I am not interested in anyone of them; because I know they are all perishable in nature. I have got only one goal; and that is the spiritual goal called moksha or in religious language, God himself is my goal. I want to attain oneness with you.

This upsana requires Vairagyam. This Nishkama Upasana has two directions:

  1. One practices the upasana for a long time. He then becomes qualified for Gyanam. Gaining this gyanam in this life itself, he attains moksha, which is called sadyo mukthih.

Note: sadyo mukti means Infallible knowledge about one’s own identity with Brahman.

  1. A person continues in saguna upasana but is not able to come to nirguna upasana. He continues saguna upasana. At time of death he asks for moksha. He then goes to Brahma loka and gets gyanam there. This is Krama mukti.

Take away:

  1. Thus we have presiding deities for every organ; all these presiding deities put together is called hiranyagarbha; that hiranyagarbha is called adhi daivam.
  2. The material world is known as adhibhutam.
  3. And therefore what is karma? Srishti karanam is Karma. Thus, present creation is a result of past creation.
  4. Scriptures say creation is not an accident. It is an incident caused by previous factors (karmas).

Ram Ramaswamy