The actual teaching of Bhagavad Gita starts at Chapter 2 verse 11 and continues through Chapter 18 verse 66.
Verses 1 to 10: Arjuna’s saranakathi (surrender): Attachment leads to sorrow. When I am attached to something, I never want to lose it. Samsara leads to raga (attachment), soga (sorrow) and mogaha (inability to decide between right and wrong – human conflict)
Verses 11 to 38: Jñāna yoga: Discovery of essential nature of every individual – consciousness.
- Consciousness is not part, product or property of body.
- Consciousness is an independent entity that pervades and enlivens every body.
- Consciousness is not limited to the boundaries of a body.
- Consciousness continues to survive even after the fall of body.
Features of Atma (Consciousness):
- Atma is eternal.
- Atma is the reality existing independently.
- Atma is all pervading.
- Atma is the ever experiencer and never the experienced.
- Atma is akartha (not a doer) or aboktha (reaps the benefits).
- Atma is free from modifications.
These features of one’s essential nature and atma are the fundamental basis for Vedantic Teachings and are elaborated in many texts and scriptures (including Tatva Bodha)
Verses 39 to 53: Karma Yoga: Proper action with proper attitude is karma yoga.
- Satvika karma is an action in which beneficiaries are more in number; selfless action; uthhama karma.
- Rajesic karma is selfish action; madhyama karma.
- Tamasic karma: action harming others for my benefit.
Proper attitude is enjoying what I do. Karma yoga is not meant for moksha but it is the preparation for Jñāna yoga.
Verses 54 to 72: Sthitapragya: Assimilate the knowledge that I am not the body but Atma and convert this knowledge into emotional strength to face life.
A guru can teach an agyani to pragyaha, but can’t give their prgaya. That effort is for the student.
- Master your senses because a distracted mind can’t assimilate Vedanta.
- Control thoughts. Certain thoughts will come, but you decide their effect.
- Nidhidhyasanam: Dwelling on this teaching.
Benefits of sthitapragyaha is the freedom from binding desires, freedom from fear, anger, jealousy and constant tranquility. This Sthitapragya is a free bird. Both jivan mukthi and vidheha mukthi.