Continuing his introduction to the Upanishad, Swami Paramarthananda said, in the last class he pointed out that among many Upanishads ten are most important due to Shankaracharya writing commentaries on them. All of them are chosen from the Vedas. Taittiriya Upanishad is from Yajur Veda. Yajur veda has two branches. Krishna Yajur and Shukla Yajur veda. Katho and Taittiriya Upanishads are from Krishna Yajur Veda. Ishavasa and Brihadaranyaka Upanishads are from Shukla Yajur Veda. Taittiriya Upanishad occurs at the end of of Taittirya Aranyakam. This Aranyakam has 10 chapters. The last 4 chapters are philosophical ones. The famour Suyra namaskra or Aruna Prashna occurs in Taittiriya Aranyakam. Last four chapters 7,8, 9 and 10 of the Aranyakam are called Taittiriya Upanishad. Shankaracharya has commented on chapters 7, 8 and 9 only. He did not comment on the last chapter 10 called Mahanarayanam. Taittiriya and Ishawasa Upanishads have an uniqueness to them. They are used for pararayanam due to their swaras or intonation. They were preserved in the sampradaya of chanting. Mundako and Keno upanishad’s were not preserved in the sampradya of chanting. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad also has swaras but they are not very popular.
Two reasons are given as to how the name Taittiriya Upanishad has come about.
The first story comes from the Puranas or is of mythological origins and is considered more a symbolic one. Once there was a sage by name of Vaishampayana and he had a great disciple by the name of Yagnavalkiya. Yagnavalkiya was a brilliant student. On one occasion he insulted one of his classmates. Vaishampayana came to know about it. He knew Yagnavalkiya had a big ego. He wanted to punish him. He asked Yagynavalkiya to return all the Vedas taught to him. Yagnavalkiya vomited all the food he had eaten and in that vomit all Vedas were surrendered as well. He lost all the wisdom he had learnt. In the vomit was also all his well-digested knowledge. A bird also digests its food and feeds that to its young. All the Rishi’s who were with Yagnavalkiya thought it would be a great idea if they could become birds and eat his vomit, so that they would get the wisdom very quickly. So all Rishi’s converted themselves to Tittiri birds (partridge) and they ate up his vomit. The Tittiri bird is small but it can consume a lot of food. Thus, all the Rishi’s gained wisdom. It is said that because the vomit was mixed with some blood it had become dark or “Krishna”, hence this knowledge is known as Krishna Yajur Veda. Later, Yagnavalkiya learnt the Vedas from Surya Bhagavan and he created the Shukla Yajur Veda. All the Rishi’s who got their wisdom from the vomit, taught others the Krishna Yajur Veda and thus the Veda spread.
The symbology in this story is that Yagnavalkiya’s vomit was like teaching the students a second time. Brilliant students usually grasp information very fast or the very first time. Others, slower students, need more time. It was not unusual for a teacher to ask his brilliant student to teach the slower students or his Co-brahmachari’s. So, Yagnavalkiya is supposed to have taught the students who were also very eager to learn. The Tittiri bird also symbolizes a desire to learn quickly. Thus, like a Tittiri bird they received their teaching.
The second story is a simpler one. There was a Rishi named Taittiri. It was an Acharyas name not that of a bird. He was from Yajur veda paramapara. Hence, the name of the Upanishad.
This Upanishad has 3 sections that were commented upon by Shankaracharya. He did not comment on the fourth section. The last or fourth section (chapter) is the Narayanavalli and it is usually chanted while welcoming a Sanyasi. Each of the three chapters or sections is named after the very first word used in the chapter.
Thus, chapter 1, beginning with word Shiksha, is called Shikshavalli.
The chapter 2 begins with Brahma and is called Brahmavalli.
Chapter 3 begins with Brighu and as such is called Brighuvalli.
Fourth chapter is called Narayanavalli but it is not studied.
First and third chapters are not dealing with Vedanta. Vedanta occurs only in chapter 2 and is the most important one. Shankaracharya’s commentary on this chapter is very famous. Chapters 1 and 2 are about preparation for gaining Gyanam and deal with Karma Yoga and Upasana.
These two subjects are discussed in chapters 1 and 3. Between these three chapters they have two shanti pathas. First chapter has a Shanti patha and chapters 2 and 3 together have another shanti patha. The invocation Sahana Vavatu comes from this shanti patha.
Shikshavalli or chapter 1:
The Shanti patha:
May Mitra be propitious to us. May Varuna bless us. May the blessings of Aryama be with us. May the grace of Indra and Brihaspathi be upon us. May Vishnu, the all pervading (wide –striding) be propitious to us. Salutations to Brahman. Salutations to Thee O Vayu! Thou art the visible Brahman. Thee alone shall I consider as the visible Brahman. I shall declare: Thou art the “Right”; Thou art the “Good”. May that protect me; may that protect the speaker. Please protect me. Please protect the speaker.
Through shanti patha students are asking for Gyana Yogyatha prapthihi. All of my organs must be in a fit condition to receive knowledge. The 17 organs (The karmendriyas, Gyanendriyas etc.) should also cooperate. During Sravanam my gyanendriyas must be active, not Karmendriyas. I must obtain Karana Yogyata prapthihi. Each organ has a Devata. I invoke these devatas so that they keep my organs fit. Various Devatas are mentioned in prayers. Prayers ask that there be no obstacles. Parthibandha Nibhadhyathi.
In this shanti patha following seven gods are invoked. They are:
Mitra: God of exhalation (outbound breath)
Varuna: Apana: God of inhalation
Aryama or Surya: God of the Eyes.
Indra: God of the hand.
Brihaspati: God of wisdom, intelligence and communication. The ability to communicate and ask questions is important. Precision and brevity in communication is required.
Urukruma or Vishnu: Is God of the feet or the ability to move and sit. Urukrama means one with big strides.
Vayu: is the Hiranyagarbha Devata or the Total subtle body. It is not visible. The visible part is Prana or Vayu. Samashti Prana is Vayu. It is total Sukshma shariram.
He is the Mangala Karta perceptible through the breath in our nostrils.
Students invoke these seven gods for auspiciousness, strength and Mangala Karta. This prayer includes prayer for fitness of teacher as well. It prays for teacher’s organs and memory as well.
Naha: Student and teacher.
Namaha: Prostrating to Hiranyagarbha Tatva as it includes all Devatas or the Totality.
Hence, we worship the Pancha Maha Bhutas of Prithvi, Jalam, Vayu, Agni, and Akash Tatvam. All are worshipped during Sandhya Vandanam as well.
You are the perceptible God. I want to spread the good news.
Ritum: Living a life according to my studies. Not being a hypocrite.
Satyam: Since I should act according to my knowledge, my knowledge should be the right understanding. My knowledge should be right. It should be Right knowledge in keeping with Shastra, Reasoning and my Experience. When these three sources of knowledge are right, I have right knowledge. Satyam is Right knowledge.
Ritum and Satyam are embodied in Hiranyagarbha. All these are prayers for Yogya Prapthihi.
Prathibandha Nivrithi: means May god protect me. Let the obstacles go away. May God bless the Guru (Vaktaram) as well.
The Shantihi is chanted three times for removal of obstacles. These obstacles are Adhidaivika (of divine origin), Adhibhautika (originated in the physical, material beings) and Adhyatmika (created by ourselves).
With Best Wishes,
1.pāyu – the excretory organ.
Is the organ of excretion. Associated with the mooladhara chakra and the earth element.
2.upastha – the sexual organs
This is the generative organ.
3.pāda – the locomotion organ
Legs are the locomotory organs.
4.pāni – the organ of apprehension
Hands are the most complex organ of action as they can express,feel and touch.
5.vāk – the speech organ
Gyanendriyas: are the five sense organs :1. ghrāṇa – nose 2.rasanā – tongue 3.cakṣu – eye 4.tvak – skin 5.śrotra – ear
1)Prithivi (earth) corresponds to the mooladhara chakra
2)Apas or Jala (water) corresponds to the Svadhistana chakra
3)Agni (fire) corresponds to the manipura chakra
4)Vayu (air) corresponds to the anahata chakra
5)Akasha (ether) corresponds to the vishuddha chakra.