Saddarshanam, Class 11


I, the atma becomes ahangara because of ignorance.  I become temporarily localized I, known as ahangara and this is the first product of ignorance.  This is the foundation for space, time and plurality and this is alone is the cause of samsara.

Space is the first tyranny.  Because of space alone I feel localized and distanced and struggle to reach people and places.  In sleep, there is no space or distance and there is not necessary for travel.

Second tyranny is time.  I want to complete my duties before die. Worry of old age, decease and ultimate death is all because of time.

Division is the third tyranny.  Division causes raga, dwesha and asuya.  Asuya is pain caused by comparison.  Comparison caused by duality or plurality.

Samsara is caused by space, time and division.  These three are possible because of ahangara foundation and ahangara is caused by ignorance and ignorance is resting on atma.  Ahangara itself is caused by identifying I with the body.

There are two types of I:

  1. The original I, the consciousness, this is atma.
  2. Second I is the limited by body or anatma.  Bagawan also falls into body but we call it avatara meaning it is a deliberate ahangara role Bagawan chooses to play.  Avataras are vyvaharika lela which is mithya.  If you start identifying with ahangara, the kala leela starts.  This is the beginning of samsara and fighting against old age, death, decay etc. Solution is to tackle the foundation, which is ahangara.  In Jagra and swapna vastha, there is time, space and duality tyranny.  In deep sleep the ahangara is temporarily suspended and there is not time space duality.


First stage is knowing the cause of samsara which is ahangara.

Second stage is to find the cause of ahangara.  Cause of ahangara is the notion that I am the body.  Remove the false notion by right knowledge.  I am not the mind or body or sense organs.  This knowledge is the only solution.

We don’t exist in any particular time and space; We, the original atma, exist everywhere; in fact, space itself exist in me. Never trace outward.

Verse 19

In the state of oneself being the body, the Wise Man and ignorant man are the same.  For one, in the heart, in the body, the Self is lit up, full, encompassing the body and the world.  For the other the Self is measurable only as the body.

Experience of the body requires a medium, e.g., sense organs.  But sense organs can only sense some of the experiences.  I can feel the experiences of my body but I can’t feel another body’s pain.

Intimate experience of a particular body is (devatma baga) common to gyani and agyani.  The confusion we may have for example, whether gyani will feel hungry and whether gyani will feel the huger of everyone else.  Ramana Maharishi says gyani will continue to have biological experiences.  With regard to biological experiences, gyanam will not make any experience.  A gyani has to go through prarabtha karma; he may avoid further agami karma or future rebirth’s sanjitha karma.

One may hear that gyani does not have devatma baga and may conclude that gyani will not have biological experience.  This is a misconception.  Vedanta is not solution for biological pains, but is a solution for psychological pain, which is caused by samsara.  Sorrow, the emotional pain, which is response to biological pain, is not experienced to have the emotional pain.  Gyani is similar in that respect and does not have emotional pain as a response to biological pain.

Based on the sunrise, biological experience, we may conclude that the earth is in the middle and the sun is traveling around earth.  Based on science, we know now that the sun is not moving around the earth, but the sun rise and sun set is caused by the earth spinning.  After this intellectual knowledge, the experience of sunrise and sunset does not change, but the conclusion is changed.  In the same way, the biological experiences will continue, but the wrong conclusion that I am the body will change for a gyani.  Vedanta is not meant to give you an experience change but a cognitive change or knowledge based change.

Gyani says I am not the body, but I am the consciousness in the body, consciousness in the mind and the consciousness in the sense organs.  I am not only the consciousness, I remain pervading my own body and the whole universe.  But biologically I experience only this localized body.  This statement can take place only in a body.  All pervasiveness can never be experienced, but can only be understood. You can never experience limitlessness as it is contradictory term because when you become an experiencer, you are localized and limited.