Shloka # 12:
मोघाशा मोघकर्माणो मोघज्ञाना विचेतसः।
राक्षसीमासुरीं चैव प्रकृतिं मोहिनीं श्रिताः।।9.12।।
Futile are their desires, futile their works, and futile their cognitions! They are mindless; (for) they have resorted to the delusive nature of monsters and demons.
Continuing his talk on chapter 9, Swamiji said, Sri Krishna has been describing Ishwara Swarupam from shloka # 4 to Shloka # 10 focusing on the higher nature of God. Chapter # 7 talked about lower nature as well as higher nature of God.
In shloka # 11, ignorance of higher nature of god is shown as cause of Samsara. How can this be? The PP (para prakriti, higher nature) is beyond time and space. So only by holding on to PP, immortality is possible. Any AP (Apara prakriti, lower nature) is within time and space and Maya as such subject to change. So long as one is AP he will be a Samsari. Even in Karma Kanda he may go to a higher Loka but those Lokas are also a part of AP.
And therefore only when a person knows the real nature of God and holds on to the real nature, he can be free from samsara. But this fact majority of people do not know and therefore they hold on to finite thing and loose it and suffer and the unfortunate thing is that they do not learn and they hold on to another finite thing, and again suffer.
So this ignorance is cause of Samsara.
And then from the 12th shloka onwards, up to the 19th shloka, Sri Krishna talks about different types of people. There are some people who have diagnosed this problem of ignorance and once we know ignorance is the cause of samsara, we know the solution is para prakrti; and once that is also clear then Gyanam is the solution. For Gyanam I require the necessary qualification and therefore sadhana chatushaya sampathi will become my immediate goal and for sadhana chatushtaya sampathi, I have to follow karma yoga and upasana. Thus I know what my course of life is; because clarity is there; I have to follow karma yoga; I have to follow upasana; I have to acquire necessary qualifications; I have to follow Gyana yoga; I have to attain Gyanam; and through Gyanam I have to remove ignorance and obtain mukthi.
Some people are very clear and they take the right path. Many others don’t know and they take the wrong path. They do not know what exactly they want. They
go after a goal for some time and acquire it; and they find that they do not get what they wanted. And then they replace the goal with another one; again
acquire it and again no satisfaction is obtained. So these people are confused people, Sri Krishna talked about the confused people, unlucky and unfortunate ones, in shloka #12. And why they are confused, because their thinking is not clear. In Kathopanishad, we saw that the body is compared to a chariot; sense organs are compared to the horses, mind is compared to the reins; and intellect is compared to the driver; a journey will be in the right direction, if the driver is informed properly.
Arjuna had Sri Krishna to guide him. Scriptures also guide one in a proper manner. Unfortunately, most do not come to scriptures. Our life, generally, takes three courses. They are:
- Janati: One who knows about his goal.
- Ichati: One who desires to reach his goal.
- Yatate: One who strives towards a goal.
If Gyanam is improper, desire will also be improper, resulting in improper effort as well. These people don’t have viveka shakti. We are all aviveki’s and scripture comes here to guide us.
Moghajanah, they all have the wrong understanding and expectations; and what are the wrong expectations; everything impermanent is mistaken as permanent; they think power is permanent; position is permanent; people around will be permanent; above all, money they think is permanent. So this they do not know; therefore they have wrong expectation; of security from insecure; permanence from the impermanence.
So, they have vain desires. If desire is futile, their action will also be futile and they don’t get what they expect.
In Chapter # 3 it says, when they have wrong desires, any amount of accomplishments will not satisfy them and rather it will lead them to greed.
Therefore Sri Krishna says, their actions will be kama pradhana actions; or krodhah pradhana actions; either their actions are born out of attachment; or their actions are born out of hatred; so rakshasim and asurim; the difference is: one is ragah, pradhana; another is dveshah pradhana.
Thus, they take to illegal methods of acquisition. With their greedy behavior they get into cutthroat competition and thus Dvesha enters them and their Kama then becomes Krodha.
What about pancha maha yagna; nothing like that exists in his life; everything will go away and therefore nitya naimithika karma also will drop; why because there is no time; I would like to use that time to earn more money. And therefore, rakshas asurim prakrti dominates.
They take to mohini, which will delude the people; which means they get into a vicious cycle. Because of non-discrimination; their kamya nishiddha karmas increase; and with it the power of discrimination gets further stifled or overpowered. Their bhuddhi will get further spoiled and eventually they loose even their conscience and thus criminals are born. Their intellect now justifies compromised values.
When we compromise with the values initially, there is a prick; Somehow you managed that, second time lying will not be pricking that much; third lie, still lesser; fourth lie, no prick at all; fifth lie, I begin to justify; sixth lie, I say it is required in kaliyuga. If one lives to this stage the person becomes incorrigible and can hope for a better luck only at next birth.
When fire is burning in forest, the wind becomes its friend. However, when the same fire was small the wind was its foe. If you cant defeat them, join them. Initially when our mind goes in wrong direction we can stop it. But later, it becomes difficult. Then the intellect cannot stop the compromise with values. And then the intellect will begin to join and justify the violation; and such people are called rakshasic people and asuric people.
Shloka # 13:
महात्मानस्तु मां पार्थ दैवीं प्रकृतिमाश्रिताः।
भजन्त्यनन्यमनसो ज्ञात्वा भूतादिमव्ययम्।।9.13।।
But magnanimous persons, resorting to a nature that is divine, O Arjuna! adore Me single-mindedly knowing ME to be the imperishable source of beings.
In previous shloka Sri Krishna talked about misguided people bogged in Samsara. There are some fortunate people who, due to their past Karmas, are born in good families.
O Partha! People born in good families take to satvik nature practicing Pancha Maha Yagna’s and leading a dharmic life. To them, due to the grace of God, they develop nithya anithya vastu viveka. They lead a religiously alert life.
Every experience teaches me a valid lesson that I should seek security only from God and not from Samsara. Seek peace only from God. This nithya anithya viveka they develop.
They have daivic prakriti. Mind purifying karmas are more in their lives. They see Me as the ultimate shelter. They see Me as the ultimate causeless cause of all beings. They see God as beginning- less, without end or infinite. They see everything other than God as finite. Intelligent people learn from other’s suffering. Unintelligent learn from, their own suffering.
Their journey begins without any distractions. In our tradition even married life is meant to be an Ashrama for Chitta Shudhi; it leads to dharma and moksha. Artha and Kama are only incidental goals.
Shloka # 14:
सततं कीर्तयन्तो मां यतन्तश्च दृढव्रताः।
नमस्यन्तश्च मां भक्त्या नित्ययुक्ता उपासते।।9.14।।
Incessantly glorifying Me, striving with steadfast vows; prostrating; eternally united, they worship Me with devotion.
How do they pursue God?
They are people of firm resolve; “ I want to attain moksha”; they are tivr mumukshas. They refresh their resolves through Vrathams. They talk of their goal as much as possible through Satsanga. The other people are also likeminded people and they will also remind you. So, they choose their friends carefully. They start preparing themselves (Yatante). Sadhana Chatushtaya Sampathi is difficult to obtain while Gyanam is easy to obtain, if you are prepared. So, one has to start preparation right now. Practice of Karma Yoga and Upasanas are all part of their preparations.
They know that mere effort is not enough; that there will be endless obstacles (pratibandhaha). To succeed Ishwara anugraha is crucial and so, they surrender to God.
If you remember, I had told you in my introduction to the seventh chapter, one thing that is highlighted in the first six chapters of the Gita is individual effort; then in the next six chapters, that is from the 7th chapter to the 12th chapter, the importance of Ishvara kripa is highlighted; Therefore prayathna is important; anugrah is important; only when both go in hand in hand, can we succeed.
Yatante indicates free will. Namasyanta indicates role of grace. So is freewill important or grace important? Both are equally important. If you discard freewill, you are fatalistic person; If you discard anugraha; you are an arrogant person; anugraham if you say no, arrogance; freewill if you say no to it means it is fatalism; we should neither be fatalistic; nor arrogance; we should know our effort is important; Ishvara’s grace is also important; Thus a balanced approach is required.
To be ever steadfast, is their personality. Just as a sports man has trainer, dietician, psychologist etc to support him similarly their total focus is on moksha.
Thus at all levels: annamaya; pranamaya; manomaya; vigyanamaya, even anandamaya, all levels, there is only one focus that of moksham alone; this they pursue and seek.
Shloka # 15:
ज्ञानयज्ञेन चाप्यन्ये यजन्तो मामुपासते।
एकत्वेन पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम्।।9.15।।
And others, worshipping Me with the sacrifice of knowledge, wait on Me looking up to Me as one with themselves or as different, in manifold ways-Me with face turned everywhere.
Now God is my goal. Even understanding of this goal evolves over time. There are thus three levels of understanding of God:
- In beginning stages: God is creator of world, the nimitha karanam, like a weaver, carpenter etc. The God is even seen as many headed or omniscient. Thus, four heads of Brahma indicate the four Vedas. It is a personal God like Vishnu. Once you progress then,
- Next level: Initially if God is seen as a person, he is limited spatially, meaning not present everywhere. Here God becomes the world. God is appearing as this universe. This universe is a form of God, Vishwarupa Ishwara. Here we are saying that Bhumi is the feet of the Lord; the sky is the body of the Lord; heaven is the head of the Lord.
- If god is everything, is Kuvam also God? Such doubts can arise. If god had only positive attributes he is limited. God does not become creation, rather it appears as creation. Real God is free from all appearances. He is Param Bhavana. He does not have any form at all.
Thus from Eka Rupa Ishwara>to>Aneka Rupa Ishwara>to> Arupa Ishwara. Everyone has to go through all these three stages.
Some worship me as non-dual Ishwara by taking to Gyana Yoga. Through Vedanta Viveka they see Arupa Ishwara. Some others worship Aneka Rupa Ishwara. Furthermore, some others worship a God with a distinct form such as Rama or Krishna.
Swami Chinmayananda started his ashram in Bombay with a Shiva Deity. Hare Krishna people criticized him saying that he used Krishna’s name but went with Shiva.
God is free from all appearances. He does not have any form at all.
Intelligent people learn from other’s suffering. Unintelligent learn from, their own suffering.
With Best Wishes,