Bhagawat Geeta, Class 139: Chapter 10, Verses 35 to 42
Shloka # 35:
बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम्।
मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः।।10.35।।
I am also the Brhat-sama of the Sama (-mantras); of the metres, Gayatri. Of the months I am Marga-sirsa, and among seasons, spring.
Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, Sri Krishna, enumerating the glories of Ishwara in shloka # 35 said, “ I am Sama among Vedas; I am Gayathri among mantras.” Gayathri is a representative of Vedas. Veda is also called Brahman. That is why Gayathri Upadesha is called Brahmupadesha or Veda Upadesha. In Chandogya Upanishad, Gayathri is presented as Brahman for meditation. Brahma sutra also analyzed it, as well. The mantra occurs in Rg, Yajur and Sama Vedas, as well.
Among all months I am the period between Dec 15- Jan 15, known as Margashirsha. This month is considered important because at that time land is full of crops, grains are plentiful, and prosperity on earth is high. Other commentators say that it is the dawn of the Devatas. Devatas one day equates to one year of human beings. The time before start of such a day is called Brahma Muhurtha. Brahma Muhurtha is a satvic period. Hence that month is important for spiritual practices.
Among six seasons I am Vasantha. The six seasons are: vasantha, varsha, sharat, hemantha, shishira and grishma. Vasantha Ritu is the period when flowers blossom and people are happy; the most pleasant season, when I am Kusumakaraha, meaning I am the abundance of flowers.
Shloka # 36:
द्यूतं छलयतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम्।
जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववतामहम्।।10.36।।
Of tricksters I am the game of dice; of the vigorous I am vigor; I am victory, I am resolution; of the virtuous, I am virtue.
Among those activities that rob us of our discriminative powers, I am gambling. Gambling makes one addicted. Kalidevata resides in several places and deludes human minds says, Bhagavan. In entire Mahabharata the message is that if we are not careful, gambling can suck us down. Dharmaputra got hooked on it and lost his sense of propriety and lost his wife and brothers. He knew Dharma and yet lost his balance. In our younger days parents used to tell us not to play cards because of this.
I am internal brilliance amongst all brilliant people. Brilliance is one who resists temptations. It is easier to say no the first time as it becomes more difficult later. Therefore I am that brilliant discrimination that resists temptations.
I am Satva guna among Satvic people. I am the satva guna, which represents spiritual inclination; rajo guna represents materialistic inclination; Artha-kama inclination is caused by rajo guna; Dharma moksha inclination is caused by satva guna; and tamo guna obstructs our inclination for both of them; tamo guna makes a person lazy with neither materialistic inclination, nor spiritual inclination.
Scriptures say Tamasic person must cultivate material desires and then go to Spiritual desires. That spiritual desire is Satva Guna.
Vyavasayaha: means prayatna or effort. This effort is to fulfill spiritual desires. Thus Pancha Maha Yagna is important for Chitta Shuddhi. It is industry as a character of mind where I will lead one to victory or success.
Thus, Satva Guna triggers Vyavsayaha victory. I am That. If we get spiritual success we should not be arrogant as even that is due to the Lord. Pull of free will should be backed by Ishwara anugraha.
Shloka # 37:
वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनंजयः।
मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः कवीनामुशना कविः।।10.37।।
Among members of the Vrsni clan, I am Vasudeva; among pandavas, I am Arjuna. Among the contemplative sages, I am Vyasa; among the seers, I am seer Usnaha.
Among descendants of Vrishni’s (Yadava Vamsha) I am Vasudeva. One of Sri Krishna’s names is Varshneya.
Why does he claim he is greatest here; because Sri Krishna is an avatara of God. Why is Sri Krishna most glorious among avataras? In Sri Krishna avatara alone God performs as a liberating Acharya, as Jagat Guru. Therefore Sri Krishna’s teaching of the Bhagavat Gita is one of the three main textbooks of Vedanta shastra. These three books are known as Prasthana Trayam. First one, the Upanishads, is called the shruti prasthana; the second one is bhagavad Gita called the smrti prasthanam; and the third one is brahma sutras, the nyaya prasthanam.
The Gita, even now is fresh and valid; it is not an obsolete textbook; rather it is a valid teaching; and since Krishna is the Gitacharya, he is the greatest one.
Among Pandavas I am Arjuna himself. Why is Arjuna the greatest and not Dharmaputra? If Gita is the grestest shastra, Arjuna was the first receiver of this greatest teaching. He got teaching from Narayana himself. Why was Arjuna chosen for giving Gita teaching? Several reasons are given but most obvious one is that Arjuna asked Sri Krishna for the teaching.
Among Muni’s, I am Vyasa Acharya. Why so? Sri Krishna is the greatest Acharya as he is a brahma vidya acharya. Among prastahna Trayam one contribution is by Sri Krishna and other of the Brahma sutra is by Vyasa. Vyasa, within Mahabharata, did even the compilation of Gita. He contributed to both Gita and Brahma sutra. During amaniavattam tarpanam there is a prayer offered to Krishnadvaipayana or Vyasa. Therefore, among Rishis, I am Vyasa. He got name Vyasa as he compiled the Vedas as well. He called four disciples and asked for their assistance. Vyasa’s original name was Krishnadvaipayana; he was also called Vedavyasa and thus became known as Vyasa.
Among great seers, who can see all three kalas, I am Shukracharya; or Usana, the asura guru. Here Kavi does not mean a poet rather he is a Kranta darshi or one with ESP; who sees beyond sense organs.
Shloka # 38:
दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम्।
मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवतामहम्।।10.38।।
Of those who chastise, I am the rod; of those who seek victory, I am the tactics. Of secrets, I am the silence, and of the learned, I am knowledge.
Among disciplinarians or orderliness, I am Danda, the rod of punishment. The process of discipline can include: Requesting, education and punishment. Sri Krishna says generally people are immature and gross; and therefore education, good words, etc. do not work; generally, what works is, dandah or punishment.
Here Sama, Dana, Bheda and Dandam come to mind. Danda gives instantaneous results. Nowadays corporate punishment is prohibited in schools.
Among causes of victory, among victors I am Nitihi or diplomacy. It leads to success.
Among secrets, I am, maunam. Maunam also represents Brahman. In silence there is nothing but Consciousness. In Mandukya Upanishad it says, nothingness is witnessed by consciousness.
Among or in wise people, I am wisdom. When you perform namaskrara to a gyani, you are doing namaskara to his Gyanam or God himself.
Shloka # 39:
यच्चापि सर्वभूतानां बीजं तदहमर्जुन।
न तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम्।।10.39।।
And that which is seed of all beings, I am, Arjuna! That which is without Me, mobile or stationary, exists not.
Here Sri Krishna concludes enumeration of his glories. He says I am the seed or material cause of creation. Clay is material cause of all earthenware; gold is material cause of all ornaments; wood is material cause of all furniture etc. Material cause expresses as effect or existence. When I say an ornament “is”, the “Is” ness belongs to Gold alone; while ornament itself is just a nama and rupa. Remove gold from ornament, it loses its existence.
Therefore when you say wall is: Isness belongs to me; when you say: fan is: Isness belongs to me; In short, I am the Sat in the creation; I am existence in every being. Therefore, there is nothing in creation, moving or stationary that exists, without my blessing. Who is God? Is ness is the God; all others are nama rupa only. Thus he started with chit, ended with sat; chit and sat are nirguna Ishvara vibhuthi; and all others are saguna Ishvara vibhuthi; vibhuthi means mahima.
Shloka # 40:
नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परंतप।
एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया।।10.40।।
Scourge of foes! There is no limit to My divine powers. What has been stated by Me is only illustrative of the extent of that puissance (power).
Here Sri Krishna says, Arjuna, I have stopped enumerating my glories. If I have to list all of them it is inexhaustible. My intention is to give a sample of glories. My divine glories have no end. Why then enumerate them? This enumeration is only a random sample of my glories. How to extend this list? Sri Krishna says, I will tell you how to do it by yourself.
Shloka # 41:
यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वं श्रीमदूर्जितमेव वा।
तत्तदेवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजोंऽशसंभवम्।।10.41।।
Whatever being has power, glory, or energy, know (each of them) to be born of a part of My splendor.
Sri Krishna says you can make your own list. When you see creation in daily life, if you see something that is wonderful (natural or artificial) that makes you awe struck or rich or abundant or powerful, like energy of sun; anything beautiful, when you see it, remember Me. When you see such a thing you prostate and hand it over to temple. Powerful, rich, etc are all an infinitesimal part of god’s glory; that is why we worship nature.
Shloka # 42:
अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन।
विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत्।।10.42।।
O Arjuna! Wherefore should you know so much of all these? Encompassing this entire world by a fragment of My power, do I abide, eternally.
Sri Krishna says, Arjuna! you can look at all this from a different perspective as well. Thus water being present in every wave; bubble or drop is one way of looking at water. Really speaking, all waves, bubbles and drops are all in water.
In a similar manner the whole creation is in Me. I remain supporting this creation or another way of seeing it is, that this entire creation is in Me.
Space is not within this hall; that is not the correct statement; rather all the Halls are in space. Similarly Bhagavan is not in the living beings; but all living beings are in Bhagavan; and that too they do not occupy the whole Bhagavan; I am only sustaining them; in one corner of Me; So the whole cosmos is only occupying a part of Me; so how big I am; so the whole cosmos is like a bubble in Me; the ocean; So with this Krishna concludes the description of His glories.
Tamo guna makes a person lazy with neither materialistic inclination, nor spiritual inclination.
A tamasic person must cultivate material desires and then go on to spiritual desires. That spiritual desire is Satva Guna.
With Best Wishes,