Baghawat Geeta, Class 138: Chapter 10, Verses 33 – 35


Shloka # 33:

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य
अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताऽहं विश्वतोमुखः।।10.33।।

Aksaranam, of the letters; I am the akarah, letter a. Samasikasya, of the group of compound words, I am the compund (called) Dvandva. Besides, aham eva, I Myself; am the aksayah, infinite, endless; kalah, time, well known as ‘moment’ etc.; or, I am the supreme God who is Kala (Time, the measurer) even of time. I am the dhata, Dispenser, the dispenser of the fruits of actions of the whole world, visvatomukhah, with faces everywhere.


Continuing his teaching, Swamiji said, we are seeing Sri Krishna continue enumeration of the glories of Ishwara. In Shloka # 33, he said that among Aksharas I am Aa. Sarasvati Devi is in the form of Alphabetic letters. Even among all letters Aa is most sacred. It is sacred because it is a basic letter that emerges from our mouth without doing anything to the mouth. Thus sounds such as E, U come about by some modification to the mouth whereas Aa is an effortless sound of the mouth. Akara is also a flexible sound that can be modified into other alphabets. Hence Aa kara is considered Karana aksharam, causal sound, while all other alphabets are considered Karya Aksharam, the effect. Vedas say that A Kara manifests as all other letters. It says all letters are a modification of Aa. In our tradition every alphabet has a presiding deity. The presiding deity of Aa is Brahmaji, the Creator of the world. Since Aa is the cause of all letters, Sri Krishna says, I am letter Aa.

Samasha:  Are compound words that are properly arranged. By compound words I save prepositions. Citing an example, in the sentence, I bought puja material really means I bought material for puja. Puja material is thus a compound word. Similarly, the sentence, I went to Shiva temple, really means I went to a temple where Shiva is worshipped. Similarly, Ganga water really means water from Ganga.

And how do you know what preposition is to be used; you know it from the context thus Ganga water means water from Ganga; Pooja material means material for pooja. And Adayar class does not mean classes

From Adayar rather it means classes conducted in Adayar. So in which place, which preposition is to be used, we get to know from the context.

Similarly, when I say I went to Birla Mandir, what I really mean is that I went to a temple built by Birla, which is the context.

This compound formation is very systematic. Four basic compounds are enumerated and these four are later expanded into 7 types of compound, then these types of compounds are further expanded into 35 types of compounds; Thus we have many compounds called samasaha; and these group of compounds are called

Saamasikam. Samasikam means samasanam samuham; the group of compound are:

tatpurusha samas; bahuvrihi samasa; karmadharaya samas; Dvigu samas; dvandva samas; avyayibhaava samas.  In Sanskrit we can compound words, which can contain tens of words joined together.  Thus, Kalidasa’s Shyamala Dandakam has many samasaha words. Therefore, among compounds I am Dvanda samasaha, says, Sri Krishna.

Kala Tatvam:

Sri Krishna says I am Kala Tatvam that puts an end to everything however kala itself has no end, meaning it is inexhaustible time. Even in pralaya, kala continues into the next creation. And because of the continuity of kala

alone, the next cycle of shristi is possible. Therefore Sri Krishna says I am the kala tatvam, which is inexhaustible.

Dhata: means karma phala dhata. One who gives appropriate karmas at right place, at right time, to right person, for all beings in the Universe. Sri Krishna says I am Karma phala dhata.


He also says, my face is turned in all directions, so I can see everywhere.

Shloka # 34:

मृत्युः सर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्च भविष्यताम्
कीर्तिः श्रीर्वाक्च नारीणां स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः क्षमा।।10.34।।

And I am Death, the destroyer of all; and the prosperity of those destined to be prosperous. Of the feminine (I am) fame, beauty, speech, memory, intelligence, fortitude and forbearance.


I am greatest robber, Kala, who will take away everything from a jiva. We can’t take anything at time of death. What you can carry at death is only one’s papam and punyam. Thus, death, or Yama, takes everything from you.

Citing a story, a man had a lot of property. He wanted to give it away. He challenged that one has to run as far as possible from sunrise to sun set, the distance, in land, covered would be given as a gift to runner. One person took the challenge and ran; as he came to closer to sunset, he wanted to get more distance and ran the last few minutes very hard and in doing so, he collapsed and died. So, what happened to all the land he acquired?

So, I am destroyer, samhara tatvam, Says Sri Krishna.


I am Udbhava, meaning source of future prosperity or wealth. The resource or source of all the future prosperity or future wealth; because if you have to

produce anything in future, they all must be there potentially; we can never generate anything if that provision is not there and Sri Krishna says that provision is myself.

Kirti, Sri, Nari, Smriti, Medha:

Female Devatas such as Mahalaxmi, goddess of wealth; Sarawati, goddess of knowledge and Parwati, Goddess of Shakti are called adhishtana devatas. Why do we have these devatas? Some universal laws govern everything. Such laws govern even our organs. These laws function because of an intelligent principle. For every government law too there is an officer required to maintain it. Any law is governed by an intelligent principle.

Thus it flows as follows: Higher Intelligence> Laws> Object.

Adhishatna devatas include Bhumi devata, alphabet devata etc are all aspects of Ishwara or God or Total intelligence.

So God for Kirti, name and fame, is called Kirti devata. Similarly we have Vak devata, Smriti devata, and Medha devata. Vedas have prayers for all such Devatas, thus there is a medha suktam.

Dhriti: means Perseverance or will power or continued effort despite failures. It is the resilience like a rubber ball that bounces back. There are several types of people. One who upon failing renounces every thing. The other type is a person, who upon failing, keeps trying again and again.

I am Dhriti says Sri Krishna.


Medha means intelligence principle; we do not know why some brains are very intelligent and others not. So there are again laws governing this and that devatha is called medha devatha; and we have got Vedic prayers directed to medha such as  medha sukhtam; a special prayer for medha devi;

Kshama: means Patience or the capacity to wait. It is often tested at traffic stops where we have to wait. I am Kshama says, Sri Krishna.

Shloka # 35:

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम्
मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः।।10.35।।

I am also the Brhat-sama of the Sama (-mantras); of the metres, Gayatri. Of the months I am Marga-sirsa, and among seasons, spring.

Sama Mantra:

Among sama mantras, I am Brihat Sama, a mantra, a very suspicious one, glorifying the Lord. This mantra praises God; hence it is known as Brihat or infinite one. I am Brihat Sama mantra, says Sri Krishna.

Gayathri Mantra:

I am gayathri mantra among all Veda mantras, says Sri Krishna. The word Chandas has two meanings; one is it is a Vedic meter and second one is, it is a Vedic mantra as well. Chandas provides rules of poetry. There are many chandas such as Anushtup, Trishtup etc.

Among Vedic mantras I am Gayathri. Gayathri has two meanings. Gayathri is a meter consisting of three lines, with 8 letters in each. Gayatri is also a mantra. Why is Gayathri glorius? Its main glory is that it is Veda saraha. Brahmaji wanted to take essence of vedas (Rg, Yajur and Sama) and he got gayathri.

Thus, we have:

Rg veda sara: Tatsavitha varenyam

Yajur Veda sara: Bhargo devasya Dhimahi

Sama Veda sara: Dhiyo yonaha prachodayat.

This mantra was originally called Savitri mantra. Savithri is name of Surya devata. It was set in gayathri meter hence it is called gayathri.

Also, Om Bhur Bhuvaha is not part of Gayatri mantra, it was added to aide the chanting of the mantra.

Since it is essence of Vedas, it is called Veda itself. Hence father teaches Gayathri to son and it continues on.

Gayathri mantra protects one from all papams or invisible negative effects. How come all people are not allowed to chant Gayathri?

Only one’s who are initiated can chant Shrauta Gayathri.

Shrauta Gayathri is from Vedas.

Smartha gayathri can be chanted by anyone. Smartha Gayatri is from Smriti’s.

Smartha gayatri is as follows:

yo devah savitasmakam dhiyo dharmati gocarah|

prerayet tasya yat bhargah tatvarenya mupasmaheh ||

Essence of Gayathri mantra:

The meaning is very simple: we are meditating upon the sacred efflugence of Sun God.

And why are we meditating and worshipping Gayathri? What do we get out of it? Gayathri is that effulgence which activates our intelligence or buddhi. So therefore, I worship the solar effulgence, because it is supposed to activate my brain; my medha shakti increases, memory power increases; and that is why for brahmacharis, or students, gayathri was emphasized; because it gives every student memory power.

Gayathri activates buddhi shakti; and therefore Sri Krishna says, I am Gayatri Mantra; if a person does not chant the gayatri; he loses all the advantages of being a vaidika purusha.

And it is said in our tradition that without chanting gayatri; whatever other mantras one chants, they all will not be that effective; on the other hand, if he chants gayatri, then no other mantra is required at all.

And furthermore, gayathri itself is divided into two based upon how it is read; thus,one says, tat savithu varenyam while other says tat savithu vare niyam; Second one has 24 letters, while first one 23 letters. One with 24 letters is called gayathri. Second one with 23 letters is called nichir Gayathri. During sandhyavandhanam; one is supposed to chant nichir gayathri;


Among 12 months of the year I am Marga shirsha or the period from Dec 15 to January 15.

Take away:

Gayathri: Its main glory is that it is Veda saraha.

Gayathri’s meaning: We are meditating upon the sacred efflugence of Sun God.

If a person does not chant the Gayathri, he loses all the advantages of being a Vaidika purusha.

Once you chant Gayathri, you don’t need to chant any other mantra.

During sandhyavandhanam we are supposed to chant the nichir gayathri with 23 letters.

Smartha gayatri is as follows:

yo devah savitasmakam dhiyo dharmati gocarah|

prerayet tasya yat bhargah tatvarenya mupasmaheh ||

Smartha Gayathri can be chanted by anyone.

With Best Wishes,

Ram Ramaswamy