Baghawad Gita Class 109: Chapter 7 Verses 25 to 30
Shloka # 25:
नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योगमायासमावृतः।
मूढोऽयं नाभिजानाति लोको मामजमव्ययम्।।7.25।।
Veiled by the delusive power of My Yoga-Maya, I do not stand revealed to all. This deluded world knows not Me, unborn and immutable.
Continuing his teaching of the Gita, Swami Paramarthananda said, from shloka # 20 onwards Sri Krishna is dealing with the topic of Sakama Bhakti. This Bhakti is worship, through which, a person seeks everything, other than God, the infinite. He spoke of the plus points of sakama bhakti. Sakama bhakti is an acceptable form of bhakti; one does not have a spiritual fall from it; it is valid and if practiced properly can even provide phalam.
Then he spoke of the minus points in shloka # 23. Sakama bhakti can only provide finite results like children, wealth, position and Loka’s, all finite in nature. Thus, these pleasures are only available for a limited time. A time will come when these pleasures will be lost and thus cause pain. Every finite pleasure has potential pain built into it and the pain is proportionate to the pleasure. Thus sakama bhakti keeps one in samsara, in a world of pleasure and pain. Such a person will not fall spiritually but he will also not grow spiritually.
A wise person knowing all this should only seek the limitless one that can bring permanent peace and happiness. What is that infinite goal? Sri Krishna says it is Para Prakriti (PP), my own higher nature. Every thing in AP is finite while PP is infinite. So, where is PP available?
Krishna says for this too I have given the answer before. Para prakriti is the chaitanyam, the consciousness principle, which is everywhere including your own body. Sri Krishna had pointed out in the fifth shloka of this chapter that para prakriti is the higher nature of God; para prakriti is the infinite; para prakriti is chaitanya svarupam and that chaitanyam is in every one. In fact because of that consciousness alone, I am aware of everything including my body and my mind and thought. And therefore the infinite source of peace and happiness is in my very heart; in my very mind; it is there.
Because of this chaitanyam, I am aware of my body, mind & thought. Therefore the infinite is literally very close to my heart. If infinite is so close to my heart, how come people run after finite things? Citing an example, swamiji says, it is like running after corporation water while I have a huge water reservoir right under my house. Sri Krishna says, there is only one reason why one seeks outside of one’s self; it is due to sheer ignorance of this fact. This fact is covered or veiled. So we have to discover it. Who is responsible for this cover? This is discussed in shloka # 25.
And the next natural question is who is responsible for this cover, for which Krishna gives the answer in 25th verse, which we were seeing in the last class.
So yogamaya; my own maya shakthi has got the covering power; avarana shakthi. And this idea also is not a new idea; Sri Krishna has discussed this in the 13th shloka of this chapter.
Because of Maya and because of three gunas we miss our own nature and are enamored by three gunas of AP. The three gunas are in the outside world, in my body and my mind. Mind, body and world are all matter principle alone. This matter enamors us. Hence the whole world is deluded and he misses the consciousness, the key source of fullness in his own body.
Citing an example there are people called water diviners; and they are able to find out where there is water; they have some material and abilities by which they can find a source of water. You can then dig the well and access the water.
Swamiji says, a Guru water diviner is ready to inform you that divine is within you through shravanm, manam and nidhidhyasanam. Even with a Guru the deluded person doesn’t have time for divine, but runs after the material world; hence he is called a mudhaha. They have forgotten their purpose in life. Therefore, people don’t recognize Me.
Shloka # 26:
वेदाहं समतीतानि वर्तमानानि चार्जुन।
भविष्याणि च भूतानि मां तु वेद न कश्चन।।7.26।।
I know Arjuna! the beings past, present and future; but none knows Me.
In previous shloka Sri Krishna says Maya or Mohini deludes the entire humanity. If maya is deluding all of us does it delude the Lord himself? Does Maya also delude him?
Citing an example, if there is a book between us and because of the book, if you cannot see me, as your vision is obstructed, the same thing holds good for me as well; Because of the book covering, you cannot see me; and I too will not be able to see you. Therefore, will not maya cover the Lord is the question? Sri Krishna says, that is not so; I am the master of maya; whereas you are the slave of maya; that is the difference. I am the master of maya, therefore even though maya is closest to Me, I am its controller, whereas you are deluded by maya.
In this regard Swami Chinamayananda said a father was taking his son for a walk when they noticed a policeman taking a prisoner. Walking further they noticed two policemen taking a thief. The Child came up with a principle that the more policemen there are the greater is the thief. Then they saw the Presidents motorcade surrounded by many policemen. Then they realized that the President is the controller of the policemen whereas the police control the thief.
Thus, while I am controlled, God is the controller. Sri Krishna says I know PP and AP in its entirety. I know the entire creation including the past, present and future of all beings. I know them all while the jiva does not even know Me. Ishwara does not have ignorance while Jiva does.
Shloka # 27:
इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेन द्वन्द्वमोहेन भारत।
सर्वभूतानि संमोहं सर्गे यान्ति परन्तप।।7.27।।
O Bharata Prince! scourge of foes! All beings in creation get confounded due to the delusions of dualities born of attachment and aversion.
Jiva has missed infinite God within himself. He has missed infinite peace and security from his time of birth it self. At time of birth every Jiva is affected by ignorance. Therefore, I seek peace and happiness outside. Thus an extrovert’s life starts. I start wishing for toys, then motorcycles, then wife, then children and so on and on. Through out life he remains an extrovert. He does not have the slightest suspicion that the Truth may be within himself. The more science advances the more we get extroverted. You are always busy without time for self-enquiry.
And therefore he says, whole world is deluded by dvandva; dvandva means pairs of opposites, caused by raga-dvesha; iccha and dvesha; I divide the world into two; this is the source of joy; this is the source of sorrow; which is all my own delusion.
And having divided the world into two; whole life I am interested in acquiring what I consider as a source of joy, and I am busy getting rid of the things I consider source of sorrow; getting and getting rid of; acquiring-disposing. Acquiring-disposing is called pravritti – nivritti activities and they are born out of ragah and dveshah.
Raga and Dvesha cause this Moha. Vedanta does not see world as a cause of happiness (by knowing myself) or sorrow (by not knowing myself). I keep changing house, wife, body; my hairstyle etc thinking changing situation will make me better.
Shloka # 28:
येषां त्वन्तगतं पापं जनानां पुण्यकर्मणाम्।
ते द्वन्द्वमोहनिर्मुक्ता भजन्ते मां दृढव्रताः।।7.28।।
But these men who have no more sins, who act righteously and who are liberated from the delusion of dualities, worship Me with a steadfast will.
There are some blessed people who are different. Due to their punya karmas in form of Pancha Maha Yagnaha their mind gets purer and their obstacles become fewer and fewer. What is an indication of a reduction in papam? They begin to ask the question, what am I doing in life?
If worldly acquisition worked I should have happiness, but even that has not worked. My problems continue. My tensions continue. Perhaps my direction is wrong?
Once that purity comes, he feels like asking someone; is there some other direction; do we have some other goal in life; is it merely pursuit of artha and kama; or do I have to do something else; and the moment this enquiry begins, purity comes and Bhagavan begins to give direction. Their delusion subsides and they begin to understand sukham and dukham are not outside; the problem is not outside; the problem is within me. As Dayananda Swami said, the Problem is You; the Solution therefore is You alone. So once the direction is turned towards myself; then I have become spiritual. Until then, he was in a world other than spiritual.
The real spirituality is when I turn towards myself. Sri Krishna says when the papam ends, the dvanada moha also ends. They are no more deluded; they have got nitya anitya vasthu viveka; therefore they have got vairagyam.
They have diagnosed the problem of life as, “I don’t know who I am”?
This is a fundamental problem; without knowing what I am, I have been doing all things. So, now they begin to seek me, the para prakriti; not the apara prakriti, the personal God. They begin to seek the infinite; which is called nishkama bhakthi. Therefore, because of this confusion, people are sakama bhakthas; once clarity of thinking comes, one will become a nishkama bhaktha. Then the next question is what is nishkama bhakthi; which we will enter.
Shloka # 29:
जरामरणमोक्षाय मामाश्रित्य यतन्ति ये।
ते ब्रह्म तद्विदुः कृत्स्नमध्यात्मं कर्म चाखिलम्।।7.29।।
Resorting to Me, those who strive for release from old age and death come to know that Brahman in Its wholeness, as also the self and all the works.
What is nishkama bhakti?
Where does nishkama bhakthi begin? When I know that world is neither the cause of sorrow, nor the cause of happiness, and when I know that I am the cause of both sorrow and happiness. Misunderstood-I is the cause of sorrow; Rightly understood-I is the cause of happiness. Like when a rope is understood and seen as a rope, it is not the cause of fear; but when the very same rope is misunderstood as snake, it frightens.
For attaining moksha one needs freedom from samsara or old age and death. We never want to die. We are certainly frightened of old age when my faculties will wither away. You can’t share your worries with your children as they are too busy with their lives.
Old age is the worst part of Samsara.
Some people work for that freedom by taking shelter in Me. They want to go beyond Kala or matter. Matter and time are inseparable. Going beyond AP means reaching PP. They discover PP or source of security and happiness. They will know both PP and AP of God. They know formed AP and formless PP. They know Lord in totality.
Here Sri Krishna adds a little mischief. PP and AP are the higher and lower nature of God. But Sri Krishna now uses a new and different set of words. Arjuna does not understand these words. AP and PP together is presented as Brahman. Another word used is Karma.
He says they will know Brahman completely. They will know Karman completely. Both these terms will be described in chapter # 8. They will know adhyatmam as well. This will also be detailed in Chapter # 8.
Shloka # 30:
साधिभूताधिदैवं मां साधियज्ञं च ये विदुः।
प्रयाणकालेऽपि च मां ते विदुर्युक्तचेतसः।।7.30।।
Those who know Me together with My manifestation in elements, divinities and sacrifices, know Me also at the time of departure from this world, their minds being concentrated.
Not only they will know the previous three factors, they will know the following three factors also. What are those three; adhi bhutam; adhi daivam and adhi yajnam. In short, they will know six factors. The six factors are: brahma, karma, adhyatmam, adhi bhutam; adhi daivam; adhi yajnam; all these six factors they know. All these six factors are nothing but para prakriti plus apara prakriti or Para-and-apara-prakriti mixture
Sri Krishna is presenting them in the form of these six technical terms.
And not only he will know these six technical words, or the six factors; Krishna adds one more; so this wise person will not only know these six factors completely; wise person will also remember them at the time of death. This wise person will remember Me, consisting of para and- apara-prakriti; or consisting of these six factors. This creates a question in Arjunas mind? Why talk of remembering god at time of death? How can one remember god at time of death? What is its significance?
Naturally, Arjuna will ask seven questions in the next chapter; what is brahma, what is karma; what is adhi bhutam; what is adhi deivam; what is adhi yajnam; and how to remember God at the time of death; therefore these two shlokas are the seed for the next chapter. Therefore Sri Krishna says, those devotees of disciplined mind remember God at the time of death; He says they are the Nishkama bhaktha’s.
This concludes sakama and nishkama bhakti. This concludes chapter # 7. The chapter is called Gyana Vigyana Yoga.
With Best Wishes
- Every finite pleasure has potential pain built into it and the pain is proportionate to the pleasure.
- Para prakriti is the chaitanyam, the consciousness principle, which is everywhere including your own body.
- Because of this chaitanyam, I am aware of my body, mind & thought.